The building of motor roads in Latin America, as elsewhere, was an activity essential to the history of modernization and state formation in the twentieth century. Governments, private companies, and regional boosters launched construction efforts with the goal of reducing travel times, linking cities and towns together, and stimulating economic development. In the process, these initiatives also changed the way citizens thought about the nation-state. New highways helped give shape to national identity, not only by making more of the countryside traversable, but also by putting citizens and foreigners in greater contact. Likewise, motor tourism identified and reified regional cultural symbols, transforming them into representations of that nation, and packaging them for easy consumption by travelers on weekend getaways.
This essay reviews scholarship which has focused on the bodies and embodied experiences of people moving and being moved. Scholars have long been interested in how physical bodies move through space and how actors perceive space during movement. This attention to embodied experience includes phenomenological engagements with the environment, sensorial perceptions during movement, and emotional entanglements with ways of moving through space. The essay then examines studies of transportation that analyze how gender, class, race, and national identity (and the intersections thereof) affect how a person experiences, uses, and ascribes meaning to modes of transportation. The essay demonstrates that just as experience and subjectivity shape transportation choices, so do transportation choices shape experience and subjectivity.
The Paradoxes and Possibilities of the Francophone Belgian Road Movie
This article builds on recent scholarship on the European road movie, focusing on Francophone Belgian road films that engage with issues of citizenship and personal, national, and transnational identities. The relationship of these films to the process of identity reformulation within new European parameters is examined, using four films from the past decade as case studies: Eldorado (Bouli Lanners, 2008), L'iceberg (Dominique Abel, Fiona Gordon and Bruno Romy, 2005), Quand la mer monte/When the Sea Rises (Jeanne Moreau and Gilles Porte, 2004), and Les folles aventures de Simon Konianski/Simon Konianski (Micha Wald, 2008). Despite the limited scale of its territory, this article contends that Belgium's complex make-up and status as a post-colonial “melting pot“ provides the ideal laboratory for cinematic identity quests. While anchored in a distinctively Belgian context, these films demonstrate that national boundaries are no longer an adequate container for identities in contemporary Europe. Particular focus is paid to the ways by which each film employs and distorts the traditional road movie template to stage voyages into citizenship.
Views from Central Asia
Markus S. Schulz
sustainable development, and the building of a “competitive” national identity that preserves history and spirituality but is pragmatically open to new knowledge and the challenges of global markets. 6 When the northward move of Kazakhstan’s capital from
Canada and Airport Refugee Claimants in the 1980s
December 1984, M1. 67 National Film Board of Canada, Who Gets In? dir. Barry Greenwald, 1989. 68 Malarek, Haven’s Gate , 74. 69 José Eduardo Igartua, The Other Quiet Revolution: National Identities in English Canada, 1945–71 (Vancouver
Peter Merriman, Georgine Clarsen, and Gijs Mom
. The issue opens with two standard articles, one by Panagiotis Zestanakis and the other by Bret Edwards. In his article, “Motorcycling in 1980s Athens: Popularization, Representational Politics, and Social Identities,” Zestanakis examines the rapid
Ehren Helmut Pflugfelder
of gender and identity developing as some of the most significant. We can understand matters of gender and power by (at least) two vectors: discursive formations in which language use frames experience, and individual performed experiences—ones that
Popularization, Representational Politics, and Social Identities
pivotal role in the process of identity construction in Cold War Europe. 24 In post–civil war Greece, debates over youth encapsulated fears of rapid social transformation and dogged national public opinion. 25 Although in the 1980s young people
needed to stress its legal continuity to this period. The previous landownership was restored, and collective farms dissolved to restore the model of the prewar era: the national ideal of small-scale single-farm production. At the time, national identity
A View from the South
research were the intersections between the social construction of technologies, feminist theorizing of bodily experiences, and the shaping of national cultures through gendered automobility, particularly in Australia, the UK, and the United States. In