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The Making of a Fundamental Value

A History of the Concept of Separation of Church and State in the Netherlands

Mart Rutjes

by national developments. The late nineteenth century witnessed an organizational boom of religious groups—Opzoomer had mentioned that it had become impossible to speak of one church in the state, and that there were many religions that the state

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Pasi Ihalainen

This paper suggests that the study of the modernisation of European political cultures in the eighteenth century would greatly benefit from a comparative conceptual historical approach. is approach would effect the reconstruction of a variety of meanings attached to chosen political concepts in different national contexts through the side-by-side analysis of primary sources originating from each case according to the methodology of both historical semantics and pragmatics. A promising research topic is the continuity and change in the conceptualisation of national community, national identity, popular sovereignty and democracy in various European political cultures. e conceptual analyses of late eighteenth-century political sermons from five northwestern European countries, conducted by the author, for example, reveal that conceptual changes related to the rise of nationalism took place even within public religion, allowing it to adapt itself to the age of nationalism. Further analysis of the secular debates taking place in representative bodies and public discourse in late eighteenth-century Britain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden elucidates the gradual development of the notion that all political power is ultimately derived from the people and that such a system constituted a "democracy" in a positive sense within different parliamentary traditions and perhaps even before the French Revolution.

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Christian Ewert

here), but a common Belgium identity has not formed as much. Lacey contrasts this with Switzerland, a country in which he does find a common national identity despite the many languages spoken in the national voting space. He infers from this the

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The Will of the People?

Carl Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on a Key Question in Democratic Theory

Samuel Salzborn

homogeneous “identity” in the sense of “identicalness” is the work of Carl Schmitt ( Mehring 2009 ; Voigt 2011 ). One step on the way toward Schmitt’s complete conceptual radicalization is represented by Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s antiliberal break with the

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Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus, and Katja Mäkinen

how they build their identities. These transformations have also shaken the foundations of the European Union and heightened criticism of its legitimacy and integration politics. The EU's attempts to enhance unity in Europe have commonly strengthened

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Sovereignty versus Influence

European Unity and the Conceptualization of Sovereignty in British Parliamentary Debates, 1945–2016

Teemu Häkkinen and Miina Kaarkoski

Ever since the fourteenth century, the concept of sovereignty (in the sense of supreme authority) has been an essential element in state formation and national identity in Britain, and different views about the identity of Britain have influenced

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Mapping the Rise of a New Concept

Ruth Hemstad

Prussia and Russia, the pan-Scandinavian movement focused on a common Scandinavian identity and nationality. As in other (pan-)national movements, the same historical traditions and common, or at least kindred, languages together with cultural similarities

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Gender, Leadership and Representative Democracy

The Differential Impacts of the Global Pandemic

Kim Rubenstein, Trish Bergin, and Pia Rowe

Introduction The need for effective leadership is heightened during times of national crisis. What is more, the impact and effect of that leadership is not only in the capacity to make wise decisions, but also in the consequences for the

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Roberto Farneti

Integration and National Identity: The Challenge of the Nordic States . London : Routledge . Hetherington , Marc J ., and Thomas Rudolph . 2015 . Why Washington Won’t Work: Polarization, Political Trust, and the Governing Crisis . Chicago

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The Timeline of a Concept

Juan Francisco Fuentes

: inward, it implies a reinforcement of identity policies so as to exclude “others”—usually immigrants—from the national community; and outward, it involves a reactive, highly emotional, mobilization against a powerful external agent, for instance, the