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Liesa Rühlmann and Sarah McMonagle

nation-state ‘norm’. Many plurilingual individuals experience acts of ‘linguicism’ ( Skutnabb-Kangas 1988 ), which are acts of racism based on the languages they speak. However, critical reflections on ‘race’ and ‘racism’ are still largely absent in

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Andrei V. Grinëv

Islands, by the famous Second Kamchatka Expedition of V. I. Bering and A. I. Chirikov. 4 At the moment of incorporation of Finland into the composition of Russia, the American possessions of the latter were managed by the Russian-American Company (RAC), a

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“Tobacco! Tobacco!”

Exporting New Habits to Siberia and Russian America

Matthew P. Romaniello

eastern end of the Aleutian Island chain, on Kodiak Island, in 1784. By 1799, the Russian-American Company (RAC) had been assembled from the diverse earlier companies (including the Golikov-Shelekhov) to hold a chartered monopoly on the American trade

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Carolyn Podruchny

leaders, men and women who serve their communities by using hand-held drums to call spirit allies.” She traces how the term has come to be used for all spiritual practitioners in Indigenous communities around the world, which reflects the racism inherent

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Esther Hertzog

This article elaborates on the connection between hygiene/cleanliness and the bureaucratic control of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. It discusses the role of stigmatisation in constructing immigrants' perceived backwardness and weakness, which necessitate guidance. The analysis also demonstrates the patronisation of immigrant women through inspection of their tidiness as mothers and housewives. The case of the Ethiopian immigrants, who began arriving in Israel at the beginning of the 1980s and still immigrate, will be used to suggest that the bureaucratic regulation of immigrants, rather than racism or cultural differentials, is behind the integration process. Moreover, the similarities between the absorption practices applied towards immigrants from Ethiopia and those from Muslim countries in the 1950s will be discussed in terms of the bureaucratic patronage over immigrants in Israel.

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Carrying Religion into a Secularising Europe

Montserratian Migrants' Experiences of Global Processes in British Methodism

Matthew Wood

Migrants to Europe often perceive themselves as entering a secular society that threatens their religious identities and practices. Whilst some sociological models present their responses in terms of cultural defence, ethnographic analysis reveals a more complex picture of interaction with local contexts. This essay draws upon ethnographic research to explore a relatively neglected situation in migration studies, namely the interactions between distinct migration cohorts - in this case, from the Caribbean island of Montserrat, as examined through their experiences in London Methodist churches. It employs the ideas of Weber and Bourdieu to view these migrants as 'religious carriers', as collective and individual embodiments of religious dispositions and of those socio-cultural processes through which their religion is reproduced. Whilst the strategies of the cohort migrating after the Second World War were restricted through their marginalised social status and experience of racism, the recent cohort of evacuees fleeing volcanic eruptions has had greater scope for strategies which combat secularisation and fading Methodist identity.

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Racial and Social Prejudice in the Colonial Empire

Issues Raised by Miscegenation in Portugal (Late Nineteenth to Mid-Twentieth Centuries)

Patrícia Ferraz de Matos

her youth, suggested that ‘races’ as well as classes should remain separated and differentiated. In some of her works, Archer criticised racism and colonialism, but she also criticised women from the metropole for having failed, alongside their

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European Bodies

Who Embodies europe? Explorations into the Construction of european Bodies

Anika Keinz and Paweł Lewicki

into scientific racism’ which ‘imprinted the physical contours of stereotypic others on the European imagination – and, with them, a host of derogatory associations’ (309). Taking this quote as a starting point in this issue, we would like to

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Emplacing Smells

Spatialities and Materialities of ‘Gypsiness’

Andreea Racleș and Ana Ivasiuc

(2000) , analysing commodity racism, imperial advertising and the development of the soap industry in Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century, wrote that soap was invested with the aptitude to bring ‘moral and economic salvation to Britain

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Whose Austria?

Muslim Youth Challenge Nativist and Closed Notions of Austrian Identity

Farid Hafez

youth before 9/11. Third, it not only discusses identity as a struggle for Muslim youth, as a challenge created by external factors such as the War on Terror and anti-Muslim racism, but turns the argument around and suggests that Muslim youths challenge