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Annick Pellegrin

While religious celebrations during the Renaissance served to reaffirm society's hegemony, the carnival was a means of freeing oneself from social norms, hierarchy and privileges. As it questions hegemony, the carnival sometimes leads to changes. Picaresque literature emerged in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. In its early stages, the picaresque was a strongly satirical and ironic 'countergenre' to mystic literature and romance genres. Like the carnivalesque, picaresque literature questions the ruling classes.2 Tintin is mostly studied either in terms of its ideological commitment or in terms of its fidelity to stylistic features. The aim of this paper differs from such concerns: it is to consider Tintin et les Picaros as a satire of politics. This paper explores the constant pairing of politics and carnival in Tintin et les Picaros, as well as the representation of both through amalgams and imports. Using Bakhtin's theory, the picaresque and Latin American history, this paper addresses the central question: how are politics and carnival represented in Tintin et les Picaros and to what extent is the album picaresque in this respect?

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Annick Pellegrin


Émile Bravo's Le Journal d'un ingénu inaugurated a growing trend of setting Spirou, Fantasio, and friends in WWII times. Bravo's acclaimed work was followed by the first instalment of a history of Spirou that also contributed to fuelling the interest in retro settings for new albums related to Spirou's universe. In this article I consider such retro albums as a whole and argue that WWII is only one of the many anchors used by authors to fill a gap in the publication history of Spirou, that as time passes, authors rely increasingly on Spirou's recovered history and on new content from retro Spirou albums to anchor their work, and that, ultimately, such works are more interested in Spirou itself rather than in history per se.

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Bart Beaty, Armelle Blin-Rolland, Rod Cooke, Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle, Thierry Groensteen, Benoît Peeters, Annick Pellegrin, Lawrence R. Schehr, Greice Schneider, and Raphaël Taylor

Notes on Contributors to Volume 3