The Tâlesh population is divided between Twelver Shi'a and Shafi'ite Sunnis. Here, the relations between the two 'communities' are harmonious and interfaith marriage is frequent. Family descent in Tâlesh is patrilineal (property, name and social status are transmitted along paternal lines) but the transmission of religious affiliation differs from that of property and social status and is governed, in the words of Meyer Fortes, by 'complementary descent': boys will adopt the religious affiliation of the father and girls that of the mother. So confessional affiliation is bilinear. However, there are exceptions that are as often linked to specific context as they may be to personal 'choice'.
The Tâlesh Solution
In Iran, the northern province of Gilân displays a strong specificity, including the registers of food and cooking. The regional culinary style is characterised by five traits: the base is rice, with a predilection for green, acid, eggs and fish. Cooking methods are also original in the Iranian world: Gilân's culinary culture is not about ovens or dry cooking or roasting, but about browning, simmering and steaming.
En Iran, la province septentrionale du Gilân présente une forte spécificité, en particulier dans les domaines de l'alimentation et de la cuisine. Le style culinaire régional se caractérise par cinq traits : la base est le riz avec une prédilection, en accompagnement, pour le vert et l'acide, pour les œufs et pour le poisson. Les techniques de cuisson présentent aussi une certaine originalité dans le monde iranien : au grillé et à la cuisson sèche, on préfère le mijoté, le revenu.
Rural Anthropology of the Middle East
Soheila Shahshahani and Christian Bromberger
When proposing the theme ‘Rural Anthropology of the Middle East’, we never would have thought that such a variety of topics would be included in the issue. Despite the fact that a continuously decreasing proportion of people dwell in rural areas around the world, including the Middle East, rural people are proving to be resourceful in facing modernity. For this reason, a diversity of subjects can be studied in rural areas, as each village is unique and quite different from the others.
Food and Cooking in the Middle East and North Africa
Éléonore Armanet and Christian Bromberger
The article introduces the issue, in which the following topics are addressed: history of the anthropology of food; food choices and prohibitions; food, cooking and identity; cooking and rituals; cooking, sexual roles and social relations; and cooking, migrations and globalisation.
L'article présente le numéro où sont abordés les thèmes suivants : histoire de l'anthropologie de l'alimentation ; choix et interdits alimentaires ; alimentation, cuisine et identité ; cuisine et rituels ; cuisine, rôles sexuels et relations sociales ; cuisine, migrations et globalisation.