During the past one hundred years, in Europe alone, more than one hundred million persons lost their lives by violence: under strafing aeroplanes, murdered by machine guns at the edge of trenches they had dug, by deliberate acts of man-made famine, beaten and starved in death camps. For many years the term 'human dignity' was only a noise made by lips. Yet no century in history became so drunk on utopias, and so disoriented morally by pretty pictures of the future. Murders were committed in the name of ideas about a 'better' organisation of society – ideas that we learned to call 'ideology'. It was enough to cast speech about 'a better future for humanity' into suspicion.