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Terry Hawkes and Shakespearean Appropriation

Robert Sawyer

Terence Hawkes' insight and encouragement of the Shakespearean scholarship of his colleagues works to dismantle the distinction between elite Shakespeare and other more popular forms of artistic expression. When Sawyer first met Hawkes at the Shakespeare Association of America meeting in Washington, D.C. in 1997, they had a lively and spirited debate about 'That Shakespearian Rag', the 1912 hit that Eliot alluded to in The Wasteland, which Hawkes used for the title of his 1986 book, and that Sawyer was currently researching in the Library of Congress. What was most striking about the encounter, Sawyer recalls, was the pitch perfect singing of a few lines of the song by Hawkes. One take away from that encounter for Sawyer was that the barriers between the elite and popular needed to be broken down in current Shakespeare studies. The second time Sawyer ran into Hawkes was at the World Shakespeare Congress in Valencia, Spain. During this conversation, Hawkes lamented the lack of humour in current Shakespeare research, asking rhetorically, 'Where are the jokes?' Hawkes helped to realign our thinking about popular culture and Shakespeare by injecting it with a healthy dose of postmodern playfulness. These two encounters led to a lasting friendship that fostered Sawyer's own engagements with popular culture Shakespeare, including publications on topics such as 'Shakespeare and Folk Art', 'Shakespeare and Country Music' and 'Shakespeare and Jerry Lee Lewis'.

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Shakespeare and Marlowe

Re-writing the Relationship

Robert Sawyer

Like the Chorus in Marlowe’s prologue to Doctor Faustus, let me begin by stating what this essay is not. This paper is not a detailed examination of the biographical character of either Marlowe or Shakespeare. Nor is it yet another attempt to show that Marlowe coauthored or, more conspiratorially, actually wrote some of Shakespeare’s plays. Nor will it focus on the working and playing conditions of the early modern theatrical scene.What it will explore is the relationship between Shakespeare and Marlowe as it has been portrayed in biographical and fictional forms.

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From Jubilee to Gala

Remembrance and Ritual Commemoration

Robert Sawyer

This essay focuses on David Garrick's Shakespeare Jubilee held in 1769 and the Royal Gala of 1830, comparing the two Stratford-based events in function, festivity, and form. Both occasions furthered Shakespeare's status as the national Bard and both included processions and grand balls. But there were striking differences in format. Some of the divergences include issues of class, while others echoed Shakespearean debates, such as the tension between page and stage Shakespeare. By looking at the commemorations side-by-side, we will be able to use the two gatherings as a microcosm to help us chart the various changes in the cultural and theatrical climate in London and Stratford vis-à-vis Shakespeare during the half-century that separated the festivities.

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Biographical Aftershocks

Shakespeare and Marlowe in the Wake of 9/11

Robert Sawyer

This article examines the relationship between Shakespeare and Marlowe as it has been portrayed in biographical forms in the early twenty-first century. Just six months before the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, Katherine Duncan-Jones's biography of Shakespeare, entitled Ungentle Shakespeare, burst on the scene and the political landscape was as altered as the biographical renderings of the two playwrights. I begin my survey with a brief review of Duncan-Jones's book, before focusing on biographical works which followed hers to show how twenty-first-century biography has already re-written the relationship.

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Sonja Fielitz, Paul Franssen, Graham Holderness, Park Honan, Reiko Oya, Robert Sawyer, Katherine Scheil, Wolfgang Weiss and Stanley Wells

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Paul Edmondson, Sonja Fielitz, Paul J. C. M. Franssen, Marga Munkelt, Ángel-Luis Pujante, Robert Sawyer, Katherine Scheil and Noemí Vera

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Clara Calvo, Anita M. Hagerman, Ton Hoenselaars, Graham Holderness, Adrian Poole, Robert Sawyer, Katherine Scheil, Emily Shortslef and Monika Smialkowska

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