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Sartre, Kafka and the Universality of the Literary Work

Jo Bogaerts

French existentialism is commonly regarded as the main impetus for the universal significance that Kafka gained in postwar France. A leading critic, Marthe Robert, has contended that this entailed an outright rejection of interest in the biographical, linguistic and historical dimension of Kafka's writing in order to interpret it as a general expression of the human condition. This article will consider this claim in the light of Sartre's original conceptualization of a dialectic of the universal and the particular in the intercultural mediation of the work of art. The notion of a 'true universality' proposed by Sartre as a defence of Kafka during the 1962 Moscow Peace Conference will allow for a reassessment of Robert's criticism in a paradoxical reversal of terms: it is precisely the inevitable loss of context and the appropriation within one's own particular situation which allow the literary work to elucidate a foreign historical context and thereby gain a wider significance. Rather than a universal meaning of the work, Sartre's concept points to literature's potential to continually release specific meanings in new contexts.

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'Rouz'd by a Woman's Pen'

The Shakespeare Ladies' Club and Reading Habits of Early Modern Women

Katherine West Scheil

In the 1730s a group of women known as the Shakespeare Ladies’ Club promoted performances of Shakespeare’s plays and supported the creation of the Shakespeare monument in Westminster Abbey. The Shakespeare Ladies’ Club (SLC) has been accorded a footnote in the reception history of Shakespeare, but no one has yet taken account of their importance for women’s participation in the intellectual and cultural life of eighteenth-century London. By tracing the dynamics of this group, we may increase our understanding of women’s reading habits, their effect on the theatrical repertoire, and their role in the public life of clubs and philanthropic endeavours. The convergence of several factors made the SLC possible; this article contextualises the SLC within the literary and cultural life of the eighteenth century, and examines the importance of the SLC in the life and work of one member, Elizabeth Boyd.

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Shylock in Buchenwald

Hanan Snir’s Israeli-German Production (Weimar 1995)

Gad Kaynar-Kissinger

influenced by the intricate critical reception history of Merchant in the German theatre. In order to understand the historiographical background of the Israeli-German Weimar production, we have to view this history from three perspectives. First, we must

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The Word of the Lord to Shylock

Biblical Forms in the Translations of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice to Hebrew

Atar Hadari

Tel Aviv University and a PhD from the University of Bristol, where he would have had plenty of opportunity to note the English reception history of the play. 7 What does Oz’s translation make of ‘revenge’? If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his

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Book Reviews

Lise Tannahill, Eliza Bourque Dandridge, and Rachel Mizsei Ward

editors instead pair biographies and historical essays with case studies and reception histories precisely to showcase the diversity of scholarly approaches to the study of visual ‘Blackness’ and of the ‘subculture’ and ‘community’ that have surrounded

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Psalms of Ascent

Shani Tzoref

reception history. The fifteen short Psalms of Ascent (Psalms 120–134) are named for the superscription that initiates each: שיר המעלות, ‘a song of the ascents’ (שיר המעלות in Ps. 121:1). Jewish tradition as well as subsequent scholarship associates these

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‘Shakespeare's Religious Afterlives’

Marta Cerezo

, and despite the importance of the study of Shakespeare's religious afterlives to fully appreciate the cultural impact of the author's reception history, there is no comprehensive critical account of them and their literary, cultural, social and

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Happiness in Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia

Joachim Frenk

the need to complete Sidney's fragmentary manuscript of the New Arcadia and add endings – and these were all happy endings. One instructive and telling example of the complicated textual and cultural revisions in the publication and reception

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Millennial Dark Ladies

Katherine Scheil

(London: Jonathan Cape, 1970), 145, 146, 148. 9 In her excellent study of the reception history of the Sonnets, Jane Kingsley-Smith observes that the Dark Lady provides ‘a means by which women may write back to Shakespeare’. The Afterlife of Shakespeare

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The Good Enough Quarto

Hamlet as a Material Object

Terri Bourus

corrupt text derived in some way from theatrical performance. 18 Zachary Lesser followed up his collaborative essay on Q1 as a literary text with an entire book, Hamlet After Q1. This is a pioneering and important reception history of Q1, which I have