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“Windrush Generation” and “Hostile Environment”

Symbols and Lived Experiences in Caribbean Migration to the UK

Huon Wardle and Laura Obermuller

2018, the year when UK notions of sovereignty were thrown into question by “Brexit,” was also the year “the Windrush generation” and “the hostile environment” suddenly became everyday symbols in the British news cycle—keywords in a battle over the

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Managing paper trails after Windrush

Migration, documents and bureaucracy

Anna Tuckett

Stories of those who were victims of the Windrush scandal are characterised by tales of long-lost documents and urgent quests to procure paperwork – maternity certificates, payslips, dental records, school reports – that would attest to a lifetime spent in the United Kingdom. The so-called Windrush generation came to need this paperwork because, although unbeknown to most, the 1971 Immigration Act demanded that from 1973, all migrants must document their ‘legal’ presence in the UK. It was, however, only from 2014 – because of changes in legislation – that now retirement-age Commonwealth citizens, most of whom had migrated to the United Kingdom as children, found themselves facing deportation back to countries that many had not visited for decades (for a historical account of the legislation and politics that led to the Windrush scandal, see Olusoga 2019). The 2014 Immigration Act deleted a key clause of the 1999 legislation that had provided long-standing Commonwealth residents with protection from enforced removal (Taylor 2018). Some of those affected by this updated legislation report that they believed themselves to be legitimate citizens of the British state and therefore did not need to prove their right to be resident through such documentation (for case studies, see Gentleman 2019). In this case, as well as in common-sense thought more generally, documents and paperwork are understood to hold the ‘truth’. Uncover it and their holder’s rightful status will be triumphantly revealed. As such, documents are imagined to act as unambiguous mechanisms of inclusion, their absence therefore denoting the exact opposite.

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Mette Louise Berg, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, and Johanna Waters

lived experiences of the UK's “hostile environment” policy, focusing on the “Windrush generation” of migrants from the Caribbean and their descendants. In Denmark, such hostility is illustrated by the harsh regimes in the country's deportation centers

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Introduction

When Was Brexit? Reading Backward to the Present

Antoinette Burton

process, Perry reminds us of what the “buried archive” of Black women's lives tells us about the long and recent histories of internal border control policymaking in the interest of protecting the White nation against multiple Windrush generations. For

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Book Reviews

On 20th Century Revolutionary Socialism, from Poland to Peru and beyond

Jean-Numa Ducange, Camila Vergara, Talat Ahmed, and Christian Høgsbjerg

from an important 1976 speech by John La Rose, ‘We did not come alive in Britain’. This gives a valuable historical overview of the ebbs and flows of the struggle waged by the ‘Windrush generation’ for racial justice from the 1940s to the 1970s. From

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“To Tell It as We Know It”

Black Women's History and the Archive of Brexit Britain

Kennetta Hammond Perry

points that have enabled the Home Office to disproportionately target members of the Windrush generation for deportation as a matter of policy in the context of the emergent politics of Brexit, Black women's views of the stakes of securing health care in

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Laborers, Migrants, Refugees

Managing Belonging, Bodies, and Mobility in (Post)Colonial Kenya and Tanzania

Hanno Brankamp and Patricia Daley

, and Laura Obermuller . 2019 . “ ‘Windrush Generation’ and ‘Hostile Environment’: Symbols and Lived Experiences in Caribbean Migration to the UK .” Migration & Society 2 : 81 – 89 . 10.3167/arms.2019.020108 Weitzberg , Keren . 2017 . We Do