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Robert Darnton

The article critically explores the different paths chosen by closely related historical disciplines: intellectual history and the history of books. While the former has focused on discourse analysis, the latter has given more attention to the study of diffusion. Historians who study the diffusion of books commonly run into a difficulty: the best-sellers of the past may serve as an indicator of public taste, but they may also be trivial, and they do not necessarily lead to explanations of important events such as the Reformation and the French Revolution. On the other hand, discourse analysis is confined to a narrow band of textual evidence, and thus cannot provide much insight on the values and views of ordinary people caught up in the patterns of everyday life. The author concludes by discussing how the history of books, particularly the history of reading and the history of publishing, can have important implications for the study of discourse.

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The Social Life of Fighting Words

The Case of Political Correctness

Ronald S. Stade

anthropological tradition of diffusionism, which has gone under various names in the more than a hundred years of systematic anthropological research. Diffusionism began as an antispeculative research program (see Stade 2015 ). Instead of speculating about

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Didier Gazagnadou

In this article, the author investigates, from an anthropological point of view, why many Iranian women (and even some men) resort to rhinoplasty – that is, surgery to alter the appearance of the nose – for cosmetic purposes. When did this phenomenon begin in Iran? Which social classes and ages are concerned? What is the relationship between this practice and Iranian society in general? Is it the result of foreign cultural influences? What comparisons can be made with other cultures? Born of a micro-sociological case, these interrogations address the anthropology of Iranian society, which, like many others, has been engaged for several decades in an ‘exchange process’ that today is commonly known as globalisation.

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Alejandro Miranda

through its diffusion. Since the last three decades of the twentieth century, involving others in keeping son jarocho alive has been the main strategy for ensuring its continuity and development. Workshops, the main device used for teaching son jarocho

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Regional and sub-regional effects on development policies

The Benelux and the Nordic countries compared

Lauri Siitonen

development (PCD), sub-regional identification provided a better explanation to multilateralism and the allocation of bilateral aid. In the conclusion of this article, I will argue that not only does norm diffusion takes place through the major international

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Hilary Pomeroy

On behalf of all those of us working to promote the diffusion of Ladino studies, I would like to express our gratitude to Jonathan Magonet and the board of European Judaism for this opportunity to bring to a wider public the language and literature of those other Jews, the Sephardim.

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Sephardi Coplas

Characteristics and Bibliography

Elena Romero

This article discusses characteristic aspects of the literary genre of Sephardic coplas in many different aspects: (1) Origins and development (the exact beginning cannot be determined with complete accuracy); (2) Importance and uniqueness of the coplas in the Sephardic poetic repertoire; (3) Corpus; (4) Characteristics (metric systems, authoring); (5) Transmission; (6) Geographical Diffusion; (7) Function; (8) Topics; and (9) Paraliturgical function. It concludes with a very extensive bibliography of the most important studies on the subject.

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Paloma Díaz-Mas

This article is an overview of the characteristics, history and the diffusion of the different types of Judeo-Spanish songs of mourning and dirges: Sephardic quinot in Judeo-Spanish for Tisha beab festivity, dirges for endechar (that is, to lament the death of a person), ballads used as songs of mourning and satirical dirges that were published in Sephardic newspapers at the beginning of the twentieth century.

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Quentin Skinner

This article is a response to Robert Darnton's comments on the relations and tensions between intellectual history and the history of books. The author comments on three arguments presented by Darnton. One is that intellectual historians often pay little attention to a question that seems to be of central importance to historians of the book: diffusion. Skinner argues that, to intellectual historians, the wide diffusion of a particular work is not a sure sign of its importance. Conversely, many of the greatest books of the past were not best-sellers. Another point made by Darnton is that intellectual historians often study books that are read and understood only by a small handful of people, a practice that constitutes a form of elitism. Skinner denies the charge of elitism by arguing that intellectual historians also study lesser-known works, and that this criticism can only be made from a philistine viewpoint. Finally, Skinner comments on the issue of the purpose of intellectual activity, defending the position that it plays the role of critically illuminating the moral and political concepts that are nowadays used to construct and appraise our common world.

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Johannes Paulmann

The article investigates an essential characteristic of the Federal Republic of Germany's search for self-assurance in foreign cultural representations after World War II. A normative behavioral pattern, described here as an “attitude of restraint,” emerged during the Adenauer era, resulting in representations without emulation. The article focuses on German participation in world fairs-an example that reveals the multi-layered mechanisms linking diplomacy with culture, political attitudes with individual experiences and memories, and foreign relations with social conditions. The formation of an attitude of restraint constituted part of the long-term process of West German self-education and shaped cultural identities in the Federal Republic. The self-assurance re-found during the Adenauer era is placed in the context of political debates about the break with the Nazi past, defense against communist East Germany, and the selective turn toward an international modernity. Furthermore, the article offers an explanation regarding the diffusion of certain behavioral norms through everyday experience and practice.