On 1-2 June 2015, Poland’s historic city of Kraków, under the auspices of the Ministry of Sport and Tourism, hosted the scientific conference, Tourism Anthropology: Heritage and Perspectives. The conference was organized by Jagiellonian University’s Institute of Intercultural Studies, and the Department of Tourism and Recreation of the University of Physical Education in Kraków, and aimed to draw up a new framework for tourism anthropology. The participating scholars focused on the relationships between man and culture in the context of traveling, which is becoming an increasingly important part of life for the modern man. Guided by the invited keynote speakers and Scientific Committee members—Nelson Graburn of the University of California–Berkeley, Józef Lipiec of Jagiellonian University, Anna Wieczorkiewicz of Warsaw University, and Ryszard Winiarski of the University of Physical Education in Kraków—the conference participants addressed themes pertaining to man as “homo viator,” the experiential dimensions of tourism, relationships between hosts and guests (and other protagonists), gender in tourism, the real and the virtual, forms of cultural tourism, tourism and culture change, the language of tourism and traveling in cultural contexts, and, finally, methodologies and scholarly practice in social scientific research on tourism.
Heritage and Perspectives
Analytical Routes through Multiple Meanings
Translator : Jeffrey Hoff
: Routledge . Badone , Ellen , and Sharon R. Roseman , eds. 2004 . Intersecting Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage and Tourism . Urbana : University of Illinois Press . Beaman , Lori . 2006 . “ Labyrinth as Heterotopia: The Pilgrim’s Creation
Ruy Llera Blanes, Sondra L. Hausner and Simon Coleman
performance. While Emerson Giumbelli’s contribution describes the making of a ‘religious tourism’ project in the city of imbituba, Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, and its implications for a conceptual reconciliation of two seemingly disconnected tropes
Labor as a common denominator
Most of the anthropology of tourism has focused either on authenticity or on the commoditization of culture. Furthermore, tourism has been looked at as a service sector and, at most, as an urban strategy. Few authors have investigated the organization of (in)formal labor in the tourism industry outside the wage form. I address this gap by looking at the living and dead labor that the production of cultural heritage is about. I argue that the tourism industry transforms long-labored spaces and existing collective use values into commodities. After illustrating this argument with sketches from the Ciutat de Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain), I conclude that the relation between the dead labor and the living labor that produce heritage determines people’s differential access to its commoditized outcome.
The last ASA Network of Applied Anthropologists (APPLY & Anthropology in Action) meeting was held at the IUAES Conference (2013) at the University of Manchester. This meeting was and is, to my mind, an important one for a couple of reasons. Hosted by Dr Jonathan Skinner (Roehampton), it involved looking at the ways in which anthropological knowledge may be used in a corporate environment as well as produced in fieldwork on alternative tourism and migrant leisure.
Kevin A. Yelvington
Academic social and cultural anthropology concerned with tourism has provided thick descriptions of the tourist exchange in a number of contexts, with exegeses devoted to illustrate the sexualized Other, the appropriation of landscape, the uses of the past in the present, and the detrimental effects of tourism structures on the ‘host’ communities. It has shown us how pilgrimages, beaches and museums become iconic and fetishized in the tourist’s gaze, how the landscape is appropriated and a geographical space is turned into a cultural place. Yet, for applied anthropologists concerned with the impacts of the world’s largest industry on local ‘toured’ populations and how the (unequal) tourism exchange is (unequally) constituted through material and symbolic historical processes, do the theories generated in the academic tradition provide a use-value? Do those anthropologists engaged in community-centred methods such as participatory action research, and working in theoretical traditions through praxis, approach their subject in the same ways as their nonapplied anthropological counterparts? Indeed, what can applied anthropologists, as such, and the consideration of applied projects, contribute to theory in anthropological research on tourism more generally?
Neoliberal Development Policies and Their Contradictions
Kevin A. Yelvington, Jason L. Simms and Elizabeth Murray
Wine tourism is a growing phenomenon, with tourists enjoying not only wine but a rural lifestyle that is associated with winegrowing areas and the elusive essence of terroir. The Temecula Valley in southern California, a small wine-producing region and wine tourism destination, is experiencing state-led plans for a vast expansion of production and tourism capacity. This article traces the challenges inherent in this development process, and questions the sustainability of such plans regarding the very environment the wine tourists seek out, especially regarding the availability of natural resources, mainly water, needed to fulfil these plans. The article concludes with a call for an applied anthropology of policy that is centred on the articulations of the state and neoliberal capitalism.
Border Medicine and Health Tourism
This essay exemplifies a particular approach to the field of health tourism, whereby the anthropology of tourism and medical anthropology can be used in conjunction. The serious business of healing is not usually associated with the pleasures of relaxation; however, Czech spas have historically been sites of both healing and leisure for visitors. Building on the suggestion of Veijola and Jokinen (1994), the body of the tourist is made the centre of this study. The bodies of patient-tourists at Czech health spas undergo various healing regimens, and their bodies signify a negotiation of national and cultural identities. Just as Bunzl (2000) considers bodies as constituting European cultural landscapes, this essay considers the ways in which German patient bodies at Czech health spas constitute a changing national, political and cultural relationship at a 'border' of Europe.
Reflections on a Village Tourism Project in Cyprus
On 1 May 2004, the Republic of Cyprus entered the European Union, unaccompanied by the Turkish-Cypriot population in the northern third of the island. The Green Line - the militarized border marking the cessation of hostilities in 1974 - now defines the outer edge of the European Union, creating a fluid and uncertain borderland which has become the focus for ongoing attempts to construct both the new Cyprus and the new Europe. Tourism has a central and contradictory role to play in these processes. It offers an avenue for stimulating economic activity and raising income levels in the Turkish-Cypriot north, and presents an opportunity to develop complementary tourism products north and south which could widen the appeal of the island as a whole and promote collaborative ventures between Greek- and Turkish-Cypriots. On the other hand, such developments face strong resistance from sections of the population north and south, who fear they will lead either to the legitimation and tacit recognition of the Turkish-Cypriot state in the north, or to a return to relations characterized by Greek-Cypriot dominance and Turkish-Cypriot dependence. The paper reflects on the author's involvement in a village tourism development project in Cyprus in 2005-2006 in order to explore what an anthropological approach to the use of tourism for political ends can tell us about conflict, and when, and under what conditions, tourism might be a force for peace and reconciliation.
Back to the Eighteenth Century
Giuli Liebman Parrinello
Although a great deal has been written about the constantly debated relationship between tourist and traveler (tourism and travel) with often quite different ideological approaches being adopted, nevertheless consensus still seems to be a distant reality. In this article, the reasons for this apparent theoretical impasse are explored by tracing its historical origins. Most scholars agree that tourism as a modern phenomenon appeared on the horizon of Western European society in the second half of the eighteenth century, thereby allowing a broad historical and dualistic conceptualization of tourism, which added to its dynamic characteristic (travel) a notion of temporary sojourn including leisure (villeggiatura, spas, etc.). The background of an articulated Enlightenment revealed not only a new anthropological curiosity about the Other, but also features like conspicuous consumption and eudaemonism, which played and continue to exert a fundamental role in the tourism of yesterday and today. Furthermore, the emerging dialectic between the new social actor (the tourist) and the movement (tourism) can currently be read as a substantial and dramatic “figuration“ (Elias 1978a), encompassing unforeseen consequences within the framework of communication.