University of Pennsylvania and École PolytThe book by Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello on the new spirit of capitalism returns to the question that puzzled the social thinkers of an earlier time: How does capitalism manufacture the ideological foundations of social peace, despite its hollow spiritual core and its creation of inequities? Their argument, reminiscent of Gramsci’s, is that capitalism is richly inventive in appropriating cultural systems to justify itself. To address the ills of contemporary society, one must deconstruct the ideologies that make excessive levels of stress, unemployment, and inequality appear unavoidable. Boltanski and Chiapello cite Durkheim’s thesis that capitalism is marred by the insatiable pursuit of self-interest, a view that resonates with the Chinese parable of the mask with no lower jaw.echnique
Fresh Perspectives on Protracted Crisis in Lebanon
Erik van Ommering
Based on child-oriented, ethnographic research in Lebanese school communities, this article offers an alternative approach to understanding the multitude of conflicts affecting Lebanon. It highlights how young Lebanese engage with corollaries of conflict in their everyday lives and simultaneously points to sources of security and resilience that children employ to confront adverse conditions. These resources, which are located in homes, schools, the environment and the ways in which young people engage their surroundings, all face unique conflict-induced pressures and dynamics. Approaching children in their generational and political contexts can help us identify and strengthen their capacities to confront, rather than reinforce, adverse conditions. In turn, this may offer a more sustainable way of promoting peace in conflict-affected societies.
The interwar years have been characterized as a “watershed” in the history of French Catholicism,1 and it is not hard to see why. The Church had experienced the first decades of the Third Republic as a time of trial and persecution. World War I, however, gave believers reason to look forward to a brighter future. The republican establishment had welcomed the political representatives of Catholic opinion into the Union sacrée. The distress of soldiers and war widows had nourished a revival of popular faith.2 With the return of peace, the Catholic laity plunged into an associational activism of unprecedented proportions. The vaulting edifice of voluntary bodies they constructed reenergized the faith and at the same articulated a Catholic countervision of the proper constitution of la cité.
Cities have long been the destination of those on the move. Migration
and especially immigration always raise issues of inclusion and
exclusion, of rights and obligations, and of the meaning of membership
and citizenship. The particular form and content of these
debates vary, just as host countries, national and local governments,
and immigrant populations vary. Over the past few decades, patterns
of immigration have begun to shift away from classical immigration
countries (the United States, Canada, Australia) toward the democracies
of the European Union. “In this troubled world, Western
Europe has in fact, become a fragile island of prosperity, peace,
democracy, culture, science, welfare and civil rights,” according to
urban sociologist, Manuel Castells. “However, the selfish reflex of
trying to preserve this heaven by erecting walls against the rest of
the world may undermine the very fundamentals of European culture
and democratic civilization, since the exclusion of the other is
not separable from the suppression of civil liberties and a mobilization
against alien cultures.”
The Elusiveness of Multiculturalism and Positive Recognition in Sri Lankan History Textbooks
This article analyzes the representation of Sri Lanka's communities in history textbooks that are currently in use. Even before the end of the war in 2009, the education system was recognized as an instrument with which the country's divided society could be rebuilt. The issues addressed in this article concern a period in which ambitious educational reforms are being implemented that envision textbooks as a tool for the creation of a new generation of citizens in a postwar society. It reveals that the general lack of recognition of minority communities, and the negative representations of the Tamil community in particular, that appear in these textbooks are not compatible with the proclaimed vision of a multicultural yet integrated society. Instead of fostering social cohesion, these textbooks may deepen ethnic divides and stereotypes, and therefore thwart reconciliation and long-term peace.
Tobias Kelly, Avi Brisman, Lisa Anderson-Levy, Olivera Simic and Livia Holden
Coles, Kimberley. 2007. Democratic Designs: International intervention and electoral practices in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN: 978-0-472-06985-9. 320 pgs. 31 figures, 6 tables. $26.95.
Goodale, Mark and Sally Engle Merry (2007) The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-0-521-68378-4, xii + 384 pp, $39.99
Lazarus-Black, Mindie. 2007. Everyday Harm: Domestic Violence, Court Rites, and Cultures of Reconciliation. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN: 978-0-252-07408-0. 264 pp. $22.00.
Pouligny, Beatrice. 2006. Peace Operations Seen from Below: UN Missions and Local People. USA: Kumarian Press. ISBN: 978 156549 224 0 276 295 pp. $27.50.
Good, Anthony. 2007. Anthropology and Expertise in the Asylum Courts. New York: Cavendish. ISBN 978-1-904385-55-4 xxv + 299 pp.
David Detmer and John Ireland
This issue of Sartre Studies International underscores Sartre’s extraordinary versatility, as it contains groundbreaking research and informative writing on his activities in politics, literature, and philosophy. By focusing on two pivotal events—Sartre’s participation in the 1952 World Congress of People for Peace in Vienna, and his canceling the premiere of his play Les Mains sales in that city—Juliane Werner sheds new light on Sartre’s political evolution, the reception of his ideas in Austria, and his role in the fierce Cold War politics— marked by propaganda and censorship—besetting that country. She suggests in particular that this Viennese episode and Sartre’s wider connection to Austria before and after the war can help us better understand the increasing radicalism of Sartre’s later political stances worldwide.
Boycott, Scandals, and the Fight for Peace
While the World Congress of People for Peace 1952 in Vienna is generally viewed as Soviet propaganda, Jean-Paul Sartre counted it among the most important experiences of his life. His participation marks a major turning point in his evolution, insofar as it publicly confirms his status as a fellow traveler of the Communist Party. In the weeks leading up to the Congress, which was met by an extensive press boycott, Sartre had already caused a stir in the Viennese media by calling off the premiere of Les Mains sales, one of several theater scandals connected to this controversial and allegedly anti-Communist play. By examining the news coverage of these events, this article reveals the impact of Sartre’s interventions and shows how they changed the reception of existentialism in Austria.
Christine Cohen Park
This is an account of three weeks spent in Israel and the Occupied Territories talking to activists and volunteers engaged in initiatives to foster cooperation and understanding between Israelis and Palestinians. Interviews in the article include: with the Siraj Centre who run walking tours in the West Bank and along the renowned Abraham Peace Trail; Yesh Din who investigate infringements of personal and property rights experienced by Palestinians in the Occupied Territories; The Greenhouse at Kibbutz ein Shemer, where Israeli and Palestinian youth collaborate in conducting scientific, ecologically based experiments; Neve Shalom where Jews and Palestinian Arabs have been living together for fifty years; Derech Hachlama whose volunteers drive Palestinian families with sick children from checkpoints to Israeli hospitals; and others. Within the context of the Netanyahu government’s increasingly hard-line approach to the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza, the unsung story of this intrepid band of warriors for peaceful coexistence deserves telling.
This is a tribute delivered at the memorial service celebrating the life of Rabbi Lionel Blue. Rabbi Daniel Smith reminiscences about Rabbi Lionel Blue, who was Daniel's teacher for fifty-five years. Lionel was a close friend and became part of Daniel's family. Lionel was a brilliant teacher, preacher and pioneer in interfaith dialogue and in German- Jewish reconciliation. Lionel worked tirelessly for peace, dialogue and understanding. He found the places that needed healing, and brought his humour, compassion and brilliance to enlighten the darkness. He was the first British rabbi to come out as gay. Young LGBTQ people now see Lionel as their pathfinder. Lionel was not scared of death. He saw heaven before he died, and the angels welcomed him with acclaim.