Whilst the importance of mainstreaming sustainability in higher education curricula is now widely acknowledged, the challenge for educators at university level is to develop and maintain authority and confidence in an area dominated by limited knowledge and uncertainty. This article suggests that the most empowering and authentic response is to adopt an approach of shared learning, but with the pedagogue demonstrating expertise and inspiration. I suggest that this is an approach to learning and teaching more familiar in areas of craft learning, characterised by apprenticeship and learning-by-doing. The article relies heavily on the work of Richard Sennett in providing a sociological account of craft learning, which is then applied to the field of sustainability. I explore how his three modes of instruction – 'sympathetic illustration', 'narrative' and 'metaphor' – are being used in the field of sustainability education, and draw parallels from the craft of basket weaving in particular, to show how these approaches might be developed. I conclude by suggesting that sustainability education is best undertaken within a community and in place, rather than abstractly and in the classroom.
Molly Scott Cato
Derek Edyvane and Demetris Tillyris
‘The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing’. -Archilochus quoted in Berlin, The Hedgehog and the Fox, 22
The fragment from the Greek poet Archilochus, quoted in Isaiah Berlin’s essay ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’, serves as a metaphor for the long-standing contrast and rivalry between two radically different approaches to public ethics, each of which is couched in a radically different vision of the structure of moral value. On the one hand, the way of the hedgehog corresponds to the creed of value monism, reflecting a faith in the ultimate unity of the moral universe and belief in the singularity, tidiness and completeness of moral and political purposes. On the other hand, the way of the fox corresponds to the nemesis of monism, the philosophical tradition of value pluralism, to which this collection of essays is devoted. This dissenting countermovement, which emerges most clearly in the writings of Isaiah Berlin, Stuart Hampshire, Bernard Williams and John Gray, is fuelled by an appreciation of the perpetuity of plurality and conflict and, correspondingly, by the conviction that visions of moral unity and harmony are incoherent and implausible. In the view of the value pluralists, ‘there is no completeness and no perfection to be found in morality’ (Hampshire 1989a: 177).
In this article I explore how socially engaged artistic practice draws upon hybridity as a methodological approach advancing social justice. Through the case study of Theaster Gates’s To Speculate Darkly (2010), a project commissioned by the Chipstone Foundation of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and shown at the Milwaukee Art Museum, I consider how socially engaged practice mobilizes continually shifting notions of postcolonial hybridity to help museums make meaningful symbolic reparations toward equality and inclusivity. The research is based on interviews I conducted with Gates and with the director and the curator of the Chipstone Foundation. The article will demonstrate that, with hybridity, artists have the potential to subvert hegemonic power structures and to inspire reconciliations between museums and communities. While such reconciliations generally involve complex processes with no clear end point, the evolving concept of hybridity is an effective vehicle to foster pluralistic institutions, cultural organizations characterized by practices built upon shared authority, reciprocity, and mutual trust. Theaster Gates refers to the methodology of hybridity as ‘temple swapping’, an exchange of values between seemingly unlike groups, in his case the black church and the museum, to explore their interconnections and relational sensibilities. Temple swapping, I aim to show, is a valuable metaphor through which to examine socially engaged artistic practice and its implications for museum ethics.
An Analysis from Two Ethnographic Studies of Midwifery Units in England
Christine McCourt, Juliet Rayment, Susanna Rance and Jane Sandall
This article is based on analysis of a series of ethnographic case studies of midwifery units in England. Midwifery units1 are spaces that were developed to provide more home-like and less medically oriented care for birth that would support physiological processes of labour, women’s comfort and a positive experience of birth for women and their families. They are run by midwives, either on a hospital site alongside an obstetric unit (Alongside Midwifery Unit – AMU) or a freestanding unit away from an obstetric unit (Freestanding Midwifery Unit – FMU). Midwifery units have been designed and intended specifically as locations of wellbeing and although the meaning of the term is used very loosely in public discourse, this claim is supported by a large epidemiological study, which found that they provide safe care for babies while reducing use of medical interventions and with better health outcomes for the women. Our research indicated that midwifery units function as a protected space, one which uses domestic features as metaphors of home in order to promote a sense of wellbeing and to re-normalise concepts of birth, which had become inhabited by medical models and a preoccupation with risk. However, we argue that this protected space has a function for midwives as well as for birthing women. Midwifery units are intended to support midwives’ wellbeing following decades of professional struggles to maintain autonomy, midwife-led care and a professional identity founded on supporting normal, healthy birth. This development, which is focused on place of birth rather than other aspects of maternity care such as continuity, shows potential for restoring wellbeing on individual, professional and community levels, through improving rates of normal physiological birth and improving experiences of providing and receiving care. Nevertheless, this very focus also poses challenges for health service providers attempting to provide a ‘social model of care’ within an institutional context.
Andrew Barnfield and et al.
Being Lighter Than Air Derek P. McCormack, Atmospheric Things: On the Allure of Elemental Envelopment (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2018), 304 pp., 34 illustrations, $27.95 (paperback) Challenging Landscapes of Confinement Michael J. Flynn and Matthew B. Flynn, Challenging Immigration Detention: Academics, Activists and Policy-makers (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2017), 352 pp. £81 (hardback). “Bottleneck” in Dakar: From Metaphor to Anthropological Analytical Tool Caroline Melly, Bottleneck: Moving, Building, and Belonging in An African City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 224 pp., 11 halftones, $30 (paperback). Migratory Trajectories, Affective Attachments, and Sexual-Economic Exchanges Christian Groes and Nadine T. Fernandez, eds., Intimate Mobilities: Sexual Economies, Marriage and Migration in a Disparate World (New York: Berghahn Books, 2018), 248 pp., $120 (hardback). Engineering Nineteenth-Century Transport Innovations Maxwell Lay, The Harnessing of Power: How 19th Century Transport Innovators Transformed the Way the World Operates (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2018), 374 pp., £64.99 (hardback). The Politics of Mobility in Postcolonial Kenya Kenda Mutongi, Matatu: A History of Popular Transportation in Nairobi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 352 pp., 31 halftones, $30 (paperback). A Sense of What Commuting Takes David Bissell, Transit Life: How Commuting is Transforming Our Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2018), 272 pp., 6 illustrations, $32 (paperback). Vanishing Point? The City after the Car Venkat Sumantran, Charles Fine and David Gonsalvez, Faster, Smarter, Greener: Th e Future of the Car and Urban Mobility (Massachusetts: Th e MIT Press), 326 pp, $29.95 Troubling the “View from Above” Caren Kaplan, Aerial Aftermaths: Wartime from Above (Durham: Duke University Press, 2018), 298pp., 24 color plates. Hardcover: $77, Paper $25. Mobility, Mobilization, and Cooptation Claudio Sopranzetti, Owners of the Map: Motorcycle Taxi Drivers, Mobility and Politics in Bangkok (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017), xiv + 328 pp., $85.00 (hardback), $29.95 (paperback). No Exit: The Persistent Legacies of Mobility Choices in Houston Kyle Shelton, Power Moves: Transportation, Politics, and Development in Houston (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2017), 302 pp., 24 black-and-white illustrations, $29.95 (paperback)
As the articles in this special section show, railways mark out urban experience in very distinctive ways. In the introduction, Steven D. Spalding makes plain there is no clear relationship between railway development and the shape and size of cities. For many cities, suburban rail travel has been either substantially insignificant or a relative latecomer as a factor in urban growth and suburbanization. Walking, tramways and the omnibus may indeed have had a much greater impact on built form, yet the cultural impact of railways on the city life should not be minimized. Iconic city stations are both objects of civic pride and socially heterogeneous gateways to the promise of a better urban life. The physical presence of substantial tracts of infrastructure, viaducts, freight yards and warehousing, divide and segregate residential districts encouraging and reinforcing status differentials between communities. Subways, metros, and suburban railways open on to the often grubby quotidian underbelly of city life whilst marking out a psychic divide between work and domesticity, city and suburb. Railways not only produced new forms of personal mobility but by defining the contours, parameters, and possibilities of this experience, they have come to help shape how we think about ourselves as urbanized individuals and societies. The chapters in this special section mark out some of this territory in terms of, for example: suburbanization, landscape, and nationhood (Joyce); the abstractions of urban form implicit in the metro map (Schwetman); the underground as a metaphor for the topologically enfolded interconnections of urban process (Masterson-Algar); and the competing lay and professional interests freighting urban railway development (Soppelsa). In the introduction Spalding is right to stress both the multiple ways that railways shape urban experience and the complex processes that continuously shape and re-shape urban cultures as sites of contest and sometimes conflict. As Richter suggests, in the nineteenth century only rail travel demanded the constant and simultaneous negotiation of both urban social disorder and the systematic ordering associated with large technological systems and corporate business. Thus “the railroad stood squarely at the crossroad of the major social, business, cultural and technological changes remaking national life during the second half of the nineteenth century.”
*Full article is in French
English abstract: Through the metaphor of a bridge of interdependence, this article brings together two traditions—Western ecofeminism and Amerindian feminist thought—focusing on two intellectuals and activists: the Australian philosopher Val Plumwood and yanacona leader, Maria Ovidia Palechor. Drawing on their convergence around territory and attachments between humans and non-humans, the article’s purpose is to show the plurality of feminist voices that characterizes new citizenship and not to stifle it under the chape of a single Western trend of feminism. Contrary to rationalist conceptions of citizenship based on identical preference (democracy of the brothers), it is a matter of valuing attachments and relational responsibility as conditions for a dysharmonic democracy based on the plurality of voices.
Spanish abstract: A través de la metáfora de un puente de interdependencia, este artículo reúne dos tradiciones—el ecofeminismo occidental y el pensamiento feminista amerindio—centrándose en dos intelectuales y activistas: el filósofo australiano Val Plumwood y la líder yanacona María Ovidia Palechor. Basándose en su convergencia en torno al territorio y los vínculos entre los seres humanos y los no humanos, el propósito del artículo es mostrar la pluralidad de voces feministas que caracteriza a la nueva ciudadanía y no sofocarla bajo la cápsula de una sola tendencia occidental del feminismo. Contrariamente a las concepciones racionalistas de la ciudadanía basada en la preferencia de lo idéntico (democracia de los hermanos), se trata de valorar los apegos y la responsabilidad relacional como condiciones para una democracia disarmónica basada en la pluralidad de voces.
French abstract: À travers la métaphore d’un pont de l’interdépendance, cet article met en dialogue deux traditions – l’écoféminisme occidental et la pensée féministe amérindienne –, en se centrant sur deux intellectuelles et activistes : la philosophe australienne Val Plumwood et la leader yanacona Maria Ovidia Palechor. S’appuyant sur leurs convergences autour du territoire et des attachements entre les humains et envers les non humains, le propos de l’article est d’exposer la pluralité des voix féministes qui caractérise les nouvelles citoyennetés, et de ne pas l’étouffer sous la chappe d’une seule tendance occidentale du féminisme. À rebours des conceptions rationalistes de la citoyenneté fondées sur la préférence à l’identique (démocratie des frères), il s’agit de valoriser les attachements et la responsabilité relationnelle comme conditions d’une démocratie dysharmonique fondée sur la pluralité des voix.
Doing Ritual While Thinking about It?
feature. Drawing on a textual metaphor, I cannot help but think of children’s books in which the reader is the ‘hero’, whose choices allow him or her to navigate through the text in multiple, at once flexible and predetermined ways. This forces the readers
A Discursive Analysis of a Century of Anthropological Writings on Missionary Ethnographers
Travis Warren Cooper
, historicizes “the early twentieth century ‘revolution in anthropology,’ when missionaries were relegated to the ranks of meddling ethnocentric ethnographic amateurs.” Prior to Malinowski’s issuance of the veranda departure metaphor, however, “the relationship
Triggering Critical Reflexive Stances on Ritual Action in Togo
offering formally, that is, without it being followed by propitiatory action. According to the previously mentioned success-related metaphor, they specify “ paatoki?νν ” (we do not eat the smile). This incitement can also be formulated more implicitly