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Charlotte Faircloth, Carolyn Heitmeyer, Mari Korpela, Cheryl White and Paul Gilbert

Unsafe Motherhood: Mayan Maternal Morality and Subjectivity in Post-war Guatemala. Nicole S. Berry, 2010, New York and London: Berghahn Books (Fertility, Reproduction and Sexuality series), ISBN: 9781845457525, 250 pp., Hb. £50.00.

Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture. Emily Martin, 2009, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN: 9780691141060, 370 pp., Pb. £16.95.

Caste, Occupation and Politics on the Ganges: Passages of Resistance. Assa Doron, 2008, Farnham: Ashgate (Anthropology and Cultural History in Asia and the Indo-Pacific) ISBN: 978-0-7546-7550-1, 198 pp., Hb. £55.

Rainforest Warriors: Human Rights on Trial. Richard Price, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, ISBN: 9780812243000, 288 pp., Hb. £36.00.

Adventures in Aidland: The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development. David Mosse (ed.), 2011, New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books (Studies in Public and Applied Anthropology: Volume 6), ISBN: 978-0-85745-110-1, 238 pp., Hb. £55.00

Collateral Knowledge: Legal Reasoning in the Global Financial Markets. Annelise Riles, 2011, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press (The Chicago Series in Law and Society), ISBN: 978-0-22671-933-7, 310 pp., Pb. £18.00

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Rabbi Dr Maybaum and Rabbi Dr Baeck

A Footnote to Professor David Ellenson's Lecture

Tony Bayfield

There is a long essay entitled "Leo Baeck in Terezin" which, as far as I know, first appeared in The Face of God After Auschwitz, the first volume of Ignaz Maybaum I ever owned, published under the auspices of RSGB in 1965. The essay seems to have been prompted by the not widely acknowledged ambiguity with which Baeck was received in London in the period up to his death in 1956. For most, Baeck was a saint. For some, however, his affirmation of the western philosophical tradition in Terezin constituted a humanistic betrayal. The Maybaum essay acknowledges the criticism. However, it is, ultimately, not only a stout defence but gets very close to Baeck's essence. What Maybaum argues is that when Baeck lectured in Terezin, he was not engaging in secular, humanistic education. Nor was he dismissing the Greek and German heritage but using it as religious protest. Because, even in Terezin - Baeck affirmed, says Maybaum, 'Truth - like the world - is the creation of God' and 'Truth, morality and love are the creation of God' and '… those who walk forward towards the kingdom of God are not taught by philosophers to do so; they are sent on this journey by God'.

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Henry A. Giroux

This article argues that democracy is on life support in the United States. Throughout the social order, the forces of predatory capitalism are on the march—dismantling the welfare state, corrupting politics with outside money, defunding higher education, expanding the corporate-surveillance-military state, widening inequalities in wealth and income, and waging a war on low income and poor minorities. As market mentalities and moralities tighten their grip on all aspects of society, democratic institutions and public spheres are being downsized, if not altogether disappearing. As these institutions vanish—from higher education to health care centers—there is also a serious erosion of the discourses of community, justice, equality, public values, and the common good. This article argues that given this current crisis, educators, artists, intellectuals, youth, and workers need a new political and pedagogical language centered around the notion of radical democracy in order to address the changing contexts and issues facing a world in which capital draws upon an unprecedented convergence of resources—financial, cultural, political, economic, scientific, military, and technological—to exercise powerful and diverse forms of control.

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Nickianne Moody

The early novels of Elinor Glyn (1864–1943) were very well received for their ‘originality, wit and high spirits’. They were written at the turn of the century when Glyn was in her early 30s in order to solve financial problems and they are acutely observed accounts of the late Victorian and Edwardian marriage market. She contrasts British high society with continental arrangements to manage wives and mistresses and in doing so tentatively begins to explore the place of sexuality within marriage or more significantly the prospect of extramarital liaisons as young brides become mature women. Biographical accounts of Glyn’s career emphasise the surprise and hurt she felt at the response from the press and society acquaintances to Three Weeks (1907) when it was published. Whereas her other novels were seen as humorous and daring, this is the novel that overstepped the mark. Three Weeks became notorious because its focus is not society manners or pre-nuptial morality, but an adulterous affair that is treated sympathetically, almost reverentially by the authoress. Even more controversially, it is an older woman who seduces a younger man, with the intention of conceiving a child. The gender relations regarding class, culture, money, initiative, status, and more specifically power are unequivocally reversed and celebrated in the expression of a mature woman’s sexual pleasure.

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Avi Shlaim

Rabbi John Rayner was an eminent proponent of ethical Zionism. His views about Israel are related in this article to his views about Judaism and Jewish ethics. The three pillars of Judaism are: truth, justice and peace. Rabbi Rayner personified these values to a remarkable degree. The common thread that runs through his countless sermons and articles was the emphasis on the gentler and more outward-looking values of Judaism. It is by cultivating and exemplifying these values, he believed, that Jews could best help humanity find signposts to justice and peace, not only in the Middle East but everywhere. Ethical Zionism, as understood by Rabbi Rayner, is based on Jewish values. The State of Israel is the main political progeny of the Zionist movement. It follows that the State of Israel ought to reflect Jewish values in its external relations. In the event of a clash between Israeli behaviour and Jewish ethics, Rabbi Rayner invariably came down on the side of Jewish ethics. He consistently placed principle above pragmatism and morality above expediency. He was an honest and courageous man who always spoke truth to power.

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Introduction

Caricature

The Editors

The history of European comic art is closely intertwined with that of caricature. The comic books by Swiss cartoonist Rodolphe Töpffer – his romans en estampes [‘novels in engravings’] – which are foundational to the medium, are essentially extended caricatures of social types (they have been called romans en caricatures [‘caricature novels’]): the limited but common-sensical father (Crépin); the flighty naturalist (Vieux Bois); the domineering financée (Elvire); the prodigal son and revolutionary (Albert); the bumbling, pretentious social climber (Jabot); etc. Together these constitute a continuation, in bande dessinée, of the passing portraits with which he scatters his Voyages en zigzig (1832 onwards). The latter in turn follow the tradition of Thomas Rowlandson’s The Tour of Doctor Syntax (1812, in French from 1821), which is linked to the ‘narrative series’ of engravings by William Hogarth, for whom Töpffer professed great admiration (Töpffer’s own father also drew caricatures). They have all been traced back to Charles Le Brun’s Méthode pour apprendre à dessiner les passions [‘Method for Learning to Draw the Passions’], first published in 1702, in which the artist explores the way physical appearance can depict interior morality.

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Jonathan Magonet

In a journal that only appears twice a year, we are always likely to be overtaken by events. In the case of the first article in this issue, Frank Dabba Smith’s important study of the history of Dr Ernst Leitz and his contribution to saving Jewish lives during the Second World War, an earlier version of this paper attracted considerable international attention. It was featured in major newspapers in the UK and Germany and in time will appear in book form. We are delighted to publish the fullest account to date of his research, as well as Frank’s book review of Michael Walzer’s Law, Politics and Morality. An important companion piece is the paper by two ‘Lilianas’, Furman and Feierstein, who have researched the history of Jewish books plundered by the Nazis and their immediate post-war fate. They focus in particular on the dramatic story of the attempts to print a new edition of the Talmud in post-war Germany, itself a form of resistance to the destruction wrought by the Nazis.

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Digital Peacekeepers, Drone Surveillance and Information Fusion

A Philosophical Analysis of New Peacekeeping

Lisa Portmess and Bassam Romaya

In June 2014 an Expert Panel on Technology and Innovation in UN Peacekeeping was commissioned to examine how technology and innovation could strengthen peacekeeping missions. The panel's report argues for wider deployment of advanced technologies, including greater use of ground and airborne sensors and other technical sources of data, advanced data analytics and information fusion to assist in data integration. This article explores the emerging intelligence-led, informationist conception of UN peacekeeping against the backdrop of increasingly complex peacekeeping mandates and precarious security conditions. New peacekeeping with its heightened commitment to information as a political resource and the endorsement of offensive military action within robust mandates reflects the multiple and conflicting trajectories generated by asymmetric conflicts, the responsibility to protect and a technology-driven information revolution. We argue that the idea of peacekeeping is being revised (and has been revised) by realities beyond peacekeeping itself that require rethinking the morality of peacekeeping in light of the emergence of 'digital peacekeeping' and the knowledge revolution engendered by new technologies.

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Introduction

Ethnographies of corporate ethicizing

Catherine Dolan and Dinah Rajak

As the global community confronts increasing economic, social, and environmental challenges, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) movement has demonstrated a powerful capacity to offer itself up as a solution, circulating new ethical regimes of accountability and sustainability in business. This article introduces five contributions that explore ethnographically the meanings, practices, and impact of corporate social and environmental responsibility across a range of transnational corporations and geographical locations (India, South Africa, the UK, Chile, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). In each of these contexts corporations are performing ethics in different ways and to different ends, from the mundane to the ritualistic and from the discursive to the material, drawing a range of actors, interests, and agendas into the moral fold of CSR. Yet across these diverse sites a set of common tensions in the practice and discourse of CSR emerge, as the supposedly “win-win” marriage between the social and the technical, the market and morality, and the natural and the cultural becomes routinized in global management practice. By tracing the connections and conflicts between the local micropolitics of corporate engagement and the global movements of CSR, the collection reveals the ambiguous and shifting nature of CSR and the ways in which social and environmental relations are transformed through the regime of ethical capitalism.

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Smita Yadav

Sites of pilgrimage and heritage tourism are often sites of social inequality and volatility that are impaired by hostilities between historical, ethnic, and competing religious discourses of morality, personhood, and culture, as well as between imaginaries of nationalism and citizenship. Often these pilgrim sites are much older in national and global history than the actual sovereign nation-state in which they are located. Pertinent issues to do with finance—such as regimes of taxation, livelihoods, and the wealth of regional and national economies—underscore these sites of worship. The articles in this special issue engage with prolix travel arrangement, accommodation, and other aspects of heritage tourism in order to understand how intangible aspects of such tourism proceed. But they also relate back to when and how these modern infrastructures transformed the pilgrimage and explore what the emerging discourses and practices were that gave newer meanings to neoliberal pilgrimages. The different case studies presented in this issue analyze the impact of these journeys on the pilgrims’ own subjectivities—especially with regard to the holy sites being situated in their imaginations of historical continuity and discontinuity and with regard to their transformative experiences of worship—using both modern and traditional infrastructures.