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Ecosystem integrity and policy coherence for development

Tools aimed at achieving balance as the basis for transformative development

Harlan Koff, Miguel Equihua Zamora, Carmen Maganda and Octavio Pérez-Maqueo

If aliens were to look down on planet Earth and observe us, they might be led to believe that the natural state of humanity is crisis. Whether we focus on politics, economics, society or the environment, it seems that crises are perpetuated and possibly even expanded in global affairs. For example, we have recently witnessed war in places such as Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, expanded flows of refugees and the resulting nativist fears expressed in those countries where they arrive or could potentially arrive, unprecedented global financial crises, the depletion of natural resources and our alleged contribution to deadly disasters (such as Typhoon Haiyan in 2013) through climate change. Borrowing from Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr’s observation of 19th century French politics, we may argue that “the more things change, the more they stay the same.” (http://www.histoire

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James L. Flexner

One could easily create a pessimistic view of the future of museums, and museum archaeology more specifically, from current events. Budget constraints, the elimination of research staff and departments at venerable institutions (Aubusson 2015; Johnson 2015; Shen 2012), and even the closure, albeit temporary, of long-established state institutions (Davis 2016) all paint a bleak picture for museum research within an environment of continuing austerity and financial crisis. In archaeology, on top of immediate economic concerns, we have yet to solve a long-perceived “curation crisis” caused by an urgent need to increase the size, quality, and sustainability of long-term storage spaces (Kersel 2015; National Park Service 2016; SAA Advisory Committee on Curation 2003). In some cases, archaeologists are even reasonably advocating for returning finds to the ground in order to take some of the pressure off overwhelmed curatorial facilities (Williams 2011). This crisis looms while the rate of accumulation of archaeological materials accelerates, driven largely by the expansion of development-driven commercial archaeology globally.

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Jean-Louis Briquet

Twice in just one month – on 24 September by the court in Perugia

and on 23 October by the one in Palermo – Giulio Andreotti was

cleared of charges that had hung over him since the first allegations

by pentiti (repentant mafiosi) of his involvement with the Mafia.

The first of these charges was that he had commissioned the mafia

killing of the journalist Mino Pecorelli, who had threatened

Andreotti and members of his entourage that he would reveal compromising

facts concerning the political and financial Italcasse scandal

of the late 1970s. The second accusation – less serious from the

criminal point of view but certainly more significant from the political

one – was that since the 1960s Andreotti had established a

‘pact’ with Cosa Nostra, either directly or through his political allies

in Sicily. In both cases, the verdict rekindled the controversy on the

political ‘activism’ of certain public prosecutors’ offices, and on the

role played by the investigating magistrates in the collapse of the so-called

First Republic. The verdict, in fact, has been hailed as

Andreotti’s political absolution and, more generally, as rehabilitating

the Democrazia cristiana (Christian Democrats: DC) and the

‘regime’ with which he has been identified for almost fifty years.

The sentence has also been used to accuse certain magistrates of

using criminal investigations for political ends, and of trying to

impose a simplistically ‘criminal’ view of Italy’s recent history.

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Renzo Costi

The year 2002 will remain an important year in the continuing story

of Italian bank foundations, non-profit-making institutions that dispose

of considerable assets and that continue to play an important

role in the Italian financial world. The 2002 Finance Act (law no. 448

of 28 December 2001), which came into force on 1 January of that

same year, aimed to change the nature of these bodies, entrusting

control over them to the political sphere, while at the same time

postponing the moment when the foundations were to divest themselves

of control by the banks. The same year saw a series of strong

political clashes over these new regulations. The government introduced

measures that were heavily criticized by the Council of State

and were then appealed against before judicial authorities, which

partially suspended the efficacy of the said measures. Finally, the

new regulations, which were suspected of being anti-constitutional,

have now been submitted to the ruling of the Constitutional Court.

The new finance act, which came into force on 1 January 2003, has

also modified certain sections of the regulations introduced by the

2002 Finance Act.

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Massimo Bordignon and Gilberto Turati

In respect of fiscal decentralization, the year 2007, and more generally

the Parliament, saw some progress, above all in relation to the regulation

of intergovernmental pacts, legislative proposals, and the institutional

relationship between different levels of government. There

were also some failures, particularly with regard to the continual intervention

by the central government in the matter of local taxes. The

year also saw the emergence of substantial problems in relation to

local debt. These had been on the increase in recent years, partly as

a consequence of the introduction of new financial instruments and

partly because of explosive growth in some areas of local expenditure,

notably in the health sector. The central government tackled some

of these problems effectively—for example, those in areas affected

by the new norms on infrastructure and the Health Pact—while its

approach toward others was ineffectual. In general, the difficulties and

internal contradictions of the parliamentary majority constrained its

legislative capacity, opening up the possibility that its more innovative

proposals—in particular, those relating to the constitutional reform of

2001—would not be implemented.

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Oksana Kis

During the Soviet regime the meaning of International Women’s Day (IWD) in Ukraine changed dramatically: its original feminist essence was substituted with communist propaganda aimed at women’s mobilization for the construction of a radiant communist future. In recent decades 8 March turned into a holiday of spring, women’s beauty, and love, celebrated both in public settings and in Soviet families. By the late 1980s, Soviet citizens had interiorized the new ways to celebrate this day at which men and boys were expected (or even required) to solemnize the “eternal femininity” of their counterparts by expressing their love, respect, and attention to women and girls of all ages, to greet them with flowers and gifts and to fulfill all their (rather modest) wishes one day a year. The leaders of the Communist Party and the heads of local authorities developed the new tradition of publishing their holiday greetings to female citizens in the media, while directors of enterprises congratulated their female employees in more tangible ways, from flowers and letters of commendation to financial bonus or career promotion. While celebrating “Soviet women―the most liberated women in the world,” nobody was to speak about the multitude of gender inequalities persisting in late Soviet society, as the so-called woman question was proclaimed solved in the USSR long ago.

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Indicators of Social Quality

Outcomes of the European Scientific Network

Laurent J.G. van der Maesen and Alan C. Walker

In October 2001, the Network Indicators of Social Quality started the process of creating social quality indicators. This project of the European Foundation on Social Quality was supported by the European Commission (DG Research) under Framework Programme 5 (van der Maesen et al. 2000). The Network consisted of representatives of universities from 14 partner countries and two European NGOs. Over its forty-two-month life the Network held four meetings. Three plenary meetings were organised with all assistants thanks to the financial support by the Dutch Scientific Foundation (NWO). Also through the creation of unique national reference groups on social quality, the Network has engaged more than a hundred scientists and policy makers in its work. The project was completed in April 2005. The intriguing question was how to theoretically legitimise the choice of social quality indicators compared to the indicators constructed in the context of 'quality of life' approaches, as developed for example by ZUMA of the University of Mannheim (Noll 2000; Berger-Schmit et al. 2000) and the European Foundation on the Improvement of Working and Living Conditions in Dublin (Fahey et al. 2002).

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The Filipino Seafarer

A Life Between Sacrifice and Shopping

Gunnar M. Lamvik

The central theme in this article is a highlighting of the way in which the life of the Filipino seafarer continues to be interwoven with that of his family. The seafarers are portrayed as products of and for their families, both in the sense that the family appears as the major motive for leaving and that close kin o en play an intrinsic role as facilitators for the actual departure. Also the extensive and complex financial contribution of the seafarer towards his family, together with certain extraordinary knowledge obtained through his occupation find their place in the outline of the Filipino seafarer as a family-based enterprise.

The article also contains a brief theoretical outline of the labour migration phenomenon, besides a discussion of the coping aspect in a seafaring profession. Life at sea is portrayed as a highly repetitive and deprived universe, which demands the use of certain coping strategies in order to make daily life appear meaningful for the seamen. Crucial in the seafarers' struggle for significance lie metaphor and the gift.

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Charlotte Faircloth, Carolyn Heitmeyer, Mari Korpela, Cheryl White and Paul Gilbert

Unsafe Motherhood: Mayan Maternal Morality and Subjectivity in Post-war Guatemala. Nicole S. Berry, 2010, New York and London: Berghahn Books (Fertility, Reproduction and Sexuality series), ISBN: 9781845457525, 250 pp., Hb. £50.00.

Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture. Emily Martin, 2009, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN: 9780691141060, 370 pp., Pb. £16.95.

Caste, Occupation and Politics on the Ganges: Passages of Resistance. Assa Doron, 2008, Farnham: Ashgate (Anthropology and Cultural History in Asia and the Indo-Pacific) ISBN: 978-0-7546-7550-1, 198 pp., Hb. £55.

Rainforest Warriors: Human Rights on Trial. Richard Price, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, ISBN: 9780812243000, 288 pp., Hb. £36.00.

Adventures in Aidland: The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development. David Mosse (ed.), 2011, New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books (Studies in Public and Applied Anthropology: Volume 6), ISBN: 978-0-85745-110-1, 238 pp., Hb. £55.00

Collateral Knowledge: Legal Reasoning in the Global Financial Markets. Annelise Riles, 2011, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press (The Chicago Series in Law and Society), ISBN: 978-0-22671-933-7, 310 pp., Pb. £18.00

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Meredith TenHoor

Until 1969, when Paris's wholesale food markets were moved to the Parisiansuburb of Rungis, Les Halles, the market district in the center of Paris, fedmuch of the city's urban population. Les Halles was not simply a place wherefood was bought and sold, but also a highly visible and symbolically chargednode of communication between the countryside, the state, and the bodies ofParisian citizens. Due to its centrality and visibility, Les Halles came underenormous pressure to physically symbolize the state's relationship to the “market.”In turn, the architecture of the markets at Les Halles came to stand in forthe powers of the state to organize a flow of goods from farm to body. Fromthe 1763 construction of the Halle au blé, to the 1851 ground-breaking on VictorBaltard's iron and glass market pavilions, to the construction of the CentrePompidou and the Forum des Halles in the 1970s and 1980s, the markets atLes Halles were regularly redesigned and rebuilt to accommodate and/or produceshifting notions of architectural, social, and financial order.