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The Birth of a Field

Women's and Gender Studies in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Part II

Gorana Mlinarević, Lamija Kosović, Kornelia Slavova, Hana Hašková, Raili Põldsaar Marling, Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou, Irina Novikova, Laima Kreivytė, Katerina Kolozova, Serpil Sancar, Elif Ekin Akşit and Krassimira Daskalova

Women’s Movements and Gender Studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina Gorana Mlinarević and Lamija Kosović

The Beginnings of Gender Studies in Bulgarian Academia Kornelia Slavova

Establishing Gender Studies in Czech Society Hana Hašková

Out of The Room of One’s Own? Gender Studies in Estonia Raili Põldsaar Marling

Gender Studies at Greek Universities Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou

Gender Studies in Latvia: Development and Challenges Irina Novikova

Gender Studies in Lithuania Laima Kreivytė

On the Status of Gender Studies in Macedonia Today Katerina Kolozova

Women’s and Gender Studies in Turkey: From Developmentalist Modernist to Critical Feminist Serpil Sancar and Elif Ekin Akşit

“The City of Gender Studies” in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe: Concluding Remarks Krassimira Daskalova

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Clio on the Margins

Women's and Gender History in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (Part Two)

Enriketa Papa-Pandelejmoni, Gentiana Kera, Krassimira Daskalova, Biljana Kašić, Sandra Prlenda, Elni Fournaraki, Yannis Yannitsiotis, Eszter Varsa, Dalia Leinarte, Grażyna Szelagowska and Natalia Pushkareva

Edited by Krassimira Daskalova

Women's History and Gender Sensitive Scholarship in Albania Enriketa Papa-Pandelejmoni and Gentiana Kera

Clio Still on the Margins: Women's and Gender History in Bulgaria Krassimira Daskalova

Women's History in Croatia: Displaced and Unhomed Biljana Kašić and Sandra Prlenda

Three Decades of Women's and Gender History in Greece: An Account Eleni Fournaraki and Yannis Yannitsiotis

The State-of-the-Art in Women's and Gender History in Hungary: Studies from and about the State Socialist Period Esżter Varsa

Women's and Gender History in Lithuania: An Overview from Time and Distance Dalia Leinatre

Women's and Gender History in Poland after 1990: The Activity of the Warsaw Team Grażyna Szelagowska

Gendering Russian History (Women's History in Russia: Status and Perspectives) Natalia Pushkareva

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Ann Miller and Kaveri Gopalakrishnan

In this interview, Kaveri Gopalakrishnan discusses childhood reading, formative influences and how her training in animation has impacted on her visual language as a comics artist. She describes the pleasures of collaborative work, but also gives a sense of the solitude necessarily involved in comics creation, and shares her insights into the artistic and technical challenges involved in conveying emotion and sensory experience. The theme of gender runs through the interview, both in relation to the models that she encountered as a child in Indian and American comics, and to her own satirical take on the rules of female decorum imposed upon Indian schoolgirls. Kaveri reflects on her choice of Instagram posts as a way of publishing a certain type of personal comic, and on the very different demands of producing illustrations for educational books. The current projects that she sets out at the end of the interview demonstrate the breadth and ambition of her work.

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“Boys Fight, Girls Fight“

Adolescent Girls Speak about Girls' Aggression

Melissa K. Levy

A perceived rise in girls' physical aggression is alarming the public as it collides with dominant views of femininity. Existing research focuses on either boys' violence or girls' non-physical aggression, leaving the realm of girls' physical aggression relatively unexplored. Using data from ethnographic observations and interviews, this study examines young adolescent girls' experience of their and their peers' fighting. Findings indicate that girls participate in fights to stand up for themselves and others, to show they are not afraid, and for fun. This study calls for continued in-depth research into girls' perspectives on aggression and violence in order to provide insight into how gendered, raced, and classed structures affect girls. It seeks, too, to address the problems that arise from girls fighting.

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Introduction

Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe

Jill Owczarzak

The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between “East” and “West” and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

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Florence Rochefort

In the French polemics over the Islamic headscarf, the relationship betweensecularism and sexual equality has sometimes been made out to be an artificialone. The articulation between politics, religion, secularism, and women'srights is examined here over the longue durée. Since the beginning of the secularizationprocess during the French Revolution, a minority has championedan egalitarian conception of secularization. Rivalries between or convergencesof political and religious authorities have driven an ambivalent and not veryequal secularization, creating secular pacts that rely on gender pacts to thedetriment of equality. This dynamic reversed itself beginning in the 1960swith the battle for legal contraception and abortion, which shook one of thevery bases of French Catholicism to its foundation. The headscarf affairsrevealed the egalitarian effects of secularism and favored the elaboration ofthought about secularism in conjunction with sexual equality, which, whateverthe various interpretations of that thought may be, could prove to be anon-negligible benefit.

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Non- and dedocumenting citizens in Romania

Nonrecording as a civil boundary

Ioana Vrăbiescu

This article explores state practices in Romania that lead to the non-, de-, and redocumenting of tens of thousands of inhabitants. Unlike state practices of (non)recording aliens (asylum seekers, refugees, undocumented migrants), the scale of dedocumenting native citizens in Romania exposes a deliberate and systematic modality of governance through exclusion from state records. These practices of citizenship dispossession lead mostly to the gender discrimination of marginalized women and the racial exclusion of Romani ethnics. People who were born and live on the state’s territory become de facto stateless. By scrutinizing state regulations and institutional practices, this article unravels the logic of dedocumenting citizens, a process that allows state actors to select those who belong to the nation on the basis of criteria that are incompatible with basic civil and human rights. This selective modality of recording endows state actors with crucial and direct control over the political and economic lives of undocumented citizens.

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'The Second Shore'

The Poetry of Male and Female Political Prisoners in Postwar Poland

Anna Muller

This essay explores a body of 340 poems created by political prisoners who were accused of and imprisoned for anti-state activity in late 1940s and 1950s Stalinist Poland. Evaluating prison poetry as a historical source, I understand the process of composing a poem as the result of a prisoner’s need to document the world around her/himself, as a psychological activity that contained diffi cult prison experiences, as a negotiation of emotional and often conflicting states, and as a social practice through which prison poets affected themselves and the people around them. Situated somewhere at the intersection of the personal and political, poetry became one of the most powerful sites of resistance. In addition to evaluating prison poetry as a historical source, this essay also explores gender differences and similarities in the body of 340 poems discussed here and in the social function of the prison poems.

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Pigs, Fish, and Birds

Toward Multispecies Ethnography in Melanesia

Katharina Schneider

This article reviews two strengths of Melanesian anthropology that could make a significant contribution to anthropological research on human-animal relations, specifically to multispecies ethnography. The first strength is an analytical approach to comparative research on gender developed in response to challenges from feminist theory in the 1980s; the second is a wealth of ethnographic detail on human-animal relations, much of it contained in texts not explicitly concerned with them and thus largely inaccessible to nonspecialist readers. The article sets up an analogy between the challenges faced by feminist anthropologists and those currently faced by multispecies ethnographers. It demonstrates how pursuing the analogy allows multispecies ethnographers to draw together analytically, and to reinvestigate a broad range of ethnographic resources containing details on human-animal relations, whose convergence so far remains hidden by divergent theoretical interests.

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Digitizing the Western Gaze

The End FGM Guardian Global Media Campaign

Jessica Cammaert

The increasing digitization of print media has resulted in the expansion of female genital mutilation (FGM) eradication efforts from print articles, editorials and novels, to online newspapers. The Guardian recently launched an online “End FGM Guardian Global Media Campaign,” incorporating video, film, and multimedia. This report reviews the digitization of FGM eradication efforts by comparing End FGM to past anti-female circumcision screen texts. Focusing on a film featured in the campaign, Shara Amin and Nabaz Ahmed’s 2007 documentary, A Handful of Ash, this report applies a post-colonial feminist critique of gender, sexuality and colonialism to examine how the digitization of pain and suffering is mobilized and consumed. Comparing the film to anti-circumcision screen texts, Ousmane Sembène’s Moolaadé and Sherry Hormann’s Desert Flower, this report historicizes the global media campaign and highlights its’ repackaging of past imperialist discourses on the body in new digitized ways.