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Yann Lebeau and David Mills

After years of neglect, there is renewed international interest in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative projects have been launched on a continental scale, looking at the socio-economic relevance of higher education, often with the aim of reviving failing institutions. A new 'transformation' policy paradigm has replaced a previously dominant rhetoric of 'crisis'. Promoted by the major funders, this discourse has been adopted by many within African governments and university administrations. We argue that such interventions are possible because of the particular post-colonial historical ties among African, European and American academies. They represent the latest stage of donor involvement in African universities, and are made possible by the outward-looking perspectives of many African scholars. Yet is this latest paradigm shift leading to real changes in research capacity and teaching quality within African institutions? Is it informed by specific institutional needs? We compare research and development projects led by donors with those led by academics themselves. Attempts by international donors to invigorate locally relevant research capacity are limiting the re-emergence of academic autonomy. Academic research 'collaborations', especially those led by European and American scholars, fare little better.'

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Ellen Bal, Erella Grassiani and Kate Kirk

This article is based on our own experiences and that of several of our colleagues teaching social and cultural anthropology in different Dutch institutions for higher learning. We focus in particular on teaching and learning in two small liberal arts and science (LAS) colleges, where anthropology makes up part of the social science curriculum and/or is part of the core curriculum. The data collected from our own critical reflections developed during informal discussion and from formal interviews with colleagues, together with literature on recent changes in academia, leads us to argue that neoliberal individualism, shaped by management tactics that constantly measure individual performance and output, is making academia an increasingly insecure place in which to work and study. The consequences of this insecurity include increasing mental health problems among both students and staff, intensifying competition at the expense of collegiality and collaboration and an overall decrease in the quality of academic jobs and teaching. Although the discipline of anthropology can help us better understand our own conditions, the personalisation of problems and the focus on success obscure the anthropological lens, which looks at social and cultural structures of power and depends on critical reflexivity.

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Sergei I. Kuznetsov and Igor V. Naumov

The eastern region of Russia left a noticeable imprint on the historical fates of the peoples of many foreign countries. Many works on the culture, history, and ethnography of Siberia sprang from the quills of foreign authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The study of Siberia was presented by people who were themselves exiled and cast away by the Russian government as undesirable or dangerous elements. This fate did not escape the peoples of foreign nations: tens of thousands of Poles, Hungarians, Germans, French, and Japanese were in various times forcibly sent to become acquainted with Siberia. Unfortunately the memories of Siberia for the peoples of a number of countries (Japanese, Hungarians, Poles,) became serious impediments in the way to mutual understanding and collaboration between Russia and those countries. The arrival of foreigners in Siberia is in large part chronicled differently by Russian historians in contrast to historians from other countries. There are various ‘blank spots’ in the history of foreign prisoners in Siberia (for example, prisoners of war from both World Wars), which Russian (Soviet) historians viewed in different terms owing to differing circumstances (with respect to the political character); the Russian ignorance of scholarship by foreign historians was further limited as a result of their inaccessibility.

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Felipe Adrián Vázquez Gálvez and Liliana Rivera-Lozano

*Full article in Spanish

English abstract: NAAEC acts as an independent platform for the international cooperation between the United States, Mexico and Canada over a wide range of environmental protocols. The CEC was formed as a practical and valuable tool to achieve NAAEC goals. Therefore, the CEC supervises the development of environmental policies and their accurate implementation among the three nations. In addition, the CEC promotes the participation of private citizens in collaboration with their governments to develop diverse strategies for conservation, protection, and improvement of our shared environment. Whether or not it is necessary to maintain regular operations of NAEEC is a subject currently evaluated during the present renegotiations of NAFTA, which provides new opportunities in view of the contemporary political, economic and environmental scene.

Spanish abstract: El ACAAN actúa como una plataforma independiente de cooperación internacional entre Estados Unidos, México y Canadá para el desarrollo de protocolos de protección del medio ambiente. La CCA se concibe como una práctica herramienta para la instrumentación de las metas trazadas por el ACAAN. En consecuencia, la CCA se encarga de gestionar, supervisar e implementar diversas estrategias de conservación, protección, y mejoramiento del medio ambiente por medio de la colaboración entre la sociedad civil y el sector gubernamental. En la actualidad, el debate en torno a si la reciente revisión y ratificación del TLCAN requerirá mantener el existente funcionamiento del ACAAN permite el planteamiento de nuevas áreas de oportunidad en vista del actual contexto político, económico y ambiental global.

French abstract: L’ANACDE sert de plate-forme indépendante pour la coopération internationale entre les États-Unis, le Mexique et le Canada sur un large éventail de protocoles environnementaux. La CCE a été créée comme outil pratique et utile pour atteindre les objectifs de l’ANACDE. Par conséquent, la CCE supervise l’élaboration des politiques environnementales et leur mise en oeuvre précise parmi les trois pays. En outre, la CCE encourage la participation des citoyens à l’élaboration de stratégies diverses en faveur de la conservation, la protection et l’amélioration de notre environnement commun. La question de savoir s’il est nécessaire ou non de maintenir les opérations régulières de l’ANACDE est actuellement débattue lors des renégociations de l’ALENA, qui ouvre de nouvelles perspectives sur les scènes politique, économique et environnementale contemporaines.

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The regional offices in Brussels

From “push and pull” to “people and place”

Justin Greenwood

English abstract: The potential of “people and place” is assessed as a means to broaden research about regional political actors into key questions about their role in European integration, largely dormant since the European Commission's 2001 White Paper on Governance raised the potential for territorial authorities to bridge EU institutions with territorial civil society. Interviews were conducted with a subset of executives from EU liaison offices performing leading roles in the formation and maintenance of a cluster of cognate networks. A key driver involves differences in their working constraints, assessed by a dual typology of offices in conjunction with literature applied to lobbyists in outreach contexts. A tendency to “go native” over time, coupled with the opportunities for long-time post holders to control their own working agendas, may lead to activities orientated toward bringing the EU to regions, rather than just promoting their regions in EU institutions.

Spanish abstract: “La gente y el lugar” son un medio para ampliar investigación sobre los actores políticos regionales en la integración europea, preguntas ausentes desde que el Libro Blanco sobre Gobernanza de la Comisión Europea (2001) elevó el potencial de las autoridades territoriales para establecer relaciones entre la sociedad civil y las instituciones de la Unión Europea (UE). Se entrevistaron ejecutivos de oficinas regionales de enlace de la UE que desempeñan actividades importantes en la formación de un conjunto de redes afines. Un factor clave involucra diferencias en sus restricciones de trabajo, evaluadas por una tipología dual de las oficinas junto con la literatura aplicada a grupos de presión en contextos de divulgación. Una tendencia a “volverse nativo”, junto con oportunidades para los antiguos funcionarios de controlar sus agendas, puede conducir a actividades que promueven la UE en las regiones, en vez de simplemente promover sus regiones en instituciones de la UE.

French abstract: Cet article évalue le potentiel des «personnes et des lieux» comme un moyen d'élargir la recherche sur les acteurs politiques régionaux sur des questions clés relatives à leur rôle dans le processus d'intégration européenne, en berne depuis la publication du Livre blanc de la Commission européenne en 2011 sur la gouvernance qui a soulevé le potentiel qu'avaient les collectivités territoriales à combler le dé ficit des institutions de l'UE en collaboration avec la société civile territoriale. Les entrevues ont été menées auprès d'un sous-groupe de cadres des bureaux de liaison de l'UE chargés du premier rôle dans la formation et le maintien d'un groupe de réseaux apparentés. Un facteur clé implique des différences dans leurs contraintes de travail, évalués par une double typologie des bureaux en conjonction avec la littérature appliquée aux lobbyistes dans des contextes de sensibilisation. Une tendance à «aller indigène» au fil du temps, couplé avec les possibilités pour les titulaires de poste à long termes de contrôler leurs propres programmes de travail, peut conduire à des activités susceptibles d'orienter l'UE dans le sens des régions, plutôt que de promouvoir essentiellement la promotion des régions au sein des institutions de l'UE.

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Religious Tourism

Analytical Routes through Multiple Meanings

Emerson Giumbelli

Translator : Jeffrey Hoff

that are transformed—with or without the collaboration of religious authorities—into tourist destinations. Museums dedicated to religion or maintained by religious institutions are sometimes compared to theme parks in which religion becomes the focus