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An Amazon Warrior, a Chaste Maiden or a Social Man?

Early Ethnographic Accounts of the Balkan Man-Woman

Aleksandra Djajić Horváth

This article looks into the representations of the figure of the Balkan man-woman in missionary and travel accounts from the turn of the twentieth century. I read these early proto-ethnographic texts, both written and visual, dialogically – as points of intersection between observers and the observed, with the aim of addressing the question of how professional transgressors – travellers and missionaries – perceived and culturally ‘translated’ female gender-transgressors who were enjoying the role and status of social men in northern Albanian and Montenegrin societies, and whose gender identity was heavily based on their daily performance of male chores and on the possession of male privileges, such as smoking, socialising with men and wearing arms.

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Maximilian Viatori

Michael Heckenberger, The ecology of power: Culture, place and personhood in the Southern Amazon, AD 1000-2000. London and New York: Routledge, 2004, 432 pp., ISBN: 0-415-94599-2 (paperback).

John Hemming, Tree of rivers: The story of the Amazon. London and New York: Thames and Hud- son, 2008, 366 pp., ISBN: 978-0-500-51401-6 (hardback).

Candice Slater, Entangled Edens: Visions of the Amazon, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 332 pp., ISBN: 0-520-22641-0 (paperback).

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Andrea Scholz

This article starts from the question of whether the concepts “cosmopolitan memory” and “shared heritage,” with their inherent universalism, are helpful when dealing with ethnographic collections from the Amazon. After presenting some historical context information on the collections in focus, I contrast different notions of “cosmopolitanism” and “cosmopolitics,” drawing on Latin American perspectives. The latter claim to represent an epistemological alternative to a Europe-centered cosmopolitan project. They propose a focus on difference, which in relation to the museum and its working processes means looking at the collections through the others’ lenses. This approach is applied to a collaborative research project between the Ethnological Museum of Berlin and an indigenous university in the Amazon, in order to document and reflect on the outcomes and dilemmas that have emerged thus far.

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Data Moves

Taking Amazonian Climate Science Seriously

Antonia Walford

Drawing on fieldwork with researchers and technicians involved in a scientific project in the Brazilian rainforest, this article explores specific aspects of climate science in the Amazon. It suggests that taking science seriously anthropologically requires an investigation into the relation between endo-anthropology and exo-anthropology. This is done recursively by exploring a particular way in which what is 'inside' and what is 'outside' are achieved and negotiated in the scientific practice under study. Researchers and technicians 'do' some crucial distinctions with data, and the article points to the importance of the flux of data and the boundaries and sides that emerge from the control of that flux.

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An Author Meets Her Critics

Around "The Mind Possessed: The Cognition of Spirit Possession in an Afro-Brazilian Religious Tradition" by Emma Cohen

Diana Espirito Santo, Arnaud Halloy, Pierre Liénard and Emma Cohen

“Why spirits?” asks Emma Cohen (97)—why are concepts of intentional and agentive supernatural beings such as spirits and gods so prevalent cross-culturally? What makes them appealing, contagious, and lasting? And what kinds of assumptions about the world and its workings do they entail and do they generate? In The Mind Possessed, Cohen offers us some answers; to some degree by appealing to her ethnography of the Afro-Brazilian practice of batuque in the Amazon-bordering town of Belém, but mostly by subordinating particularistic concerns to what she considers more general ‘scientific’ ones. However, it may be the questions, rather than the answers, that merit revising.

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Kathleen Lowrey, Eben Kirksey, Julie Velásquez Runk, Jessica O'Reilly, Melissa Checker, Juliana Essen, Rebecca Mari Meuninck, Jason Roberts, Yu Huang, James H. McDonald, Wendy R. Townsend, Robert Fletcher, Megan Tracy and E.N. Anderson

BLASER, Mario, Storytelling Globalization from the Chaco and Beyond

HALVERSON, Anders, An Entirely Synthetic Fish: How Rainbow Trout Beguiled America and Overran the World

HECKLER, Serena, Landscape, Process, and Power: Re-Evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge

HELMREICH, Stefan, Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas

HOLIFIELD, Ryan, Michael PORTER, and Gordon WALKER, eds., Spaces of Environmental Justice

LANSING, J. Stephen, Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali

LYON, Sarah, and Mark MOBERG, eds., Fair Trade and Social Justice: Global Ethnographies

MARSH, Kevin R., Drawing Lines in the Forest: Creating Wilderness in the Pacific Northwest

MUSCOLINO, Micah S., Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

PERRAMOND, Eric P., Political Ecologies of Cattle Ranching in Northern Mexico: Private Revolutions

RINGHOFER, Lisa, Fishing, Foraging and Farming in the Bolivian Amazon: On a Local Society in Transition

SCHELHAS, John, and Max J. PFEFFER, Saving Forests, Protecting People? Environmental Conservation in Central America

TRUBEK, Amy B., The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir

VAYDA, Andrew P., Explaining Human Actions and Environmental Changes

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Aguinda v. Texaco Inc.

Expanding Indigenous “Expertise” Beyond Ecoprimitivism

Veronica Davidov

This article analyzes a series of litigations that began with the Aguinda v. Texaco Inc. case as a site of production of new legal subjectivities for indigenous communities in the region of the Ecuadorian Amazon polluted by oil extraction activities. They engage in the transnational and local legal structures, contribute to and generate legal and scientific knowledge and expertise, and articulate multiple legal subjectivities that position them not only as homogenous plaintiffs in a highly publicized lawsuit, but also as legal actors in complex relation to each other, and to the state. Through such engagements with this legal process, indigenous actors are recrafting their collective representations in ways that challenge the ‘ecoprimitive’ stereotypes of indigeneity, historically associated with the ‘paradox of primitivism.’

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Social Lives and Symbolic Capital

Indigenous ‘Oil Lawsuits’ as Sites of Order and Disorder Making

Veronica Davidov

Lawsuits are representational arenas, as well as legal events. They serve as integrative spaces for power relations, symbolic orders, and moral economies. This article focuses on the ‘social lives’ of two lawsuits brought by indigenous communities to litigate issues arising from oil extraction on their territories: the Texaco lawsuit in the Ecuadorian Amazon and the Beaver Lake Cree Nation lawsuit in Alberta, Canada. I analyze the narratives of indigeneity and modernity that they challenge, as well as their potential to order and disorder social fabrics beyond the legal sphere. I argue that lawsuits are ethnographic dramas that make visible how various social actors ‘order’ the world into categories, such as ‘value’, ‘modernity’, ‘commons’, and ‘sovereignty’, and in the process render legible the constructed nature of symbolic life.

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Flora Lu

The tropical rainforest houses a wealth of both ecological and cultural diversity, and the species richness, ecosystem services, genetic wealth, and repository of indigenous and local environmental knowledge stored in this endangered region represent a global commons at risk. As articulated by Donald Nonini in the introduction to this forum, ‘the commons’ refers to those assemblages and ensembles of resources that human beings hold in common or in trust on behalf of themselves, other living human beings, and past and future generations of human beings, and that are essential to their biological, cultural, and social reproduction. In the Amazon, many ecological resources lend themselves to being held in a commons because of practical reasons, such as the difficulty of dividing it into smaller pieces (e.g., due to resource unpredictability, mobility, or the loss of ecological functioning if broken into pieces), and/or the costliness of excluding potential users. But social reasons and values foster the communal management of resources as well: various commons exemplify shared identity, provide economic buffering, mitigate subsistence risk, foster cooperation and conflict resolution, and serve as a pillar in the edifice of societies supporting socialization and social reproduction.

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Astrid M. Fellner, Tatyana Kmetova, Basia A. Nowak, Jill Massino, Melissa Feinberg, Magdalena Koch, Mária Pakucs Willcocks, Mihaela Petrescu, Libora Oates-Indruchová, Biljana Dojčinović-Nešić, Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, Albena Hranova, Maria Bucur, Oana Băluţă, Elena Shulman, Olga Todorova, Irina Novikova and Marianna G. Muravyeva

Marlen Bidwell-Steiner and Karin S. Wozonig, eds., A Canon of Our Own? Kanonkritik und Kanonbildung in den Gender Studies (A canon of our own? Canon criticism and canon building in gender studies)

Marina Blagojevic, ed., Mapiranje mizoginije u Srbiji: Diskurs I prakse (Mapping the misogyny in Serbia: Discourses and practises), vols. 1 and 2

Graz ̇yna Borkowska, Alienated Women: A Study on Polish Women’s Fiction, 1845–1918

Choi Chatterjee, Celebrating Women: Gender, Festival Culture, and Bolshevik Ideology, 1910–1939

Francisca de Haan, Krassimira Daskalova and Anna Loutfi, eds., A Biographical Dictionary of Women’s Movements and Feminisms. Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe, 19th and 20th Centuries

Biljana Dojčinović-Nešić GendeRings: Gendered Readings in Serbian Women’s Writing

Constant a Ghit ulescu, În s ̧alvari s ̧i cu is ̧lic. Biserica ̆, sexualitate, ca ̆sa ̆torie s ̧i divort în T ara Româneasca ̆ a secolului al XVIII-lea (Wearing shalvars and ishlik. Church, sexuality, marriage and divorce in eighteenth-century Wallachia) Reviewed

Valentina Gla ̆jar and Domnica Ra ̆dulescu, eds., Vampirettes,Wretches and Amazons. Western Representations of East European Women

Hana Hašková, Alena Krˇížková, and Marcela Linková, eds., Mnohohlasem: vyjednávání ženských prostoru ̊ po roce 1989 (Polyphony: Negotiating women’s spaces after 1989)

Celia Hawkesworth, Voices in the Shadows: Women and Verbal Art in Serbia and Bosnia

Katherine R. Jolluck, Exile and Identity. Polish Women in the Soviet Union during World War II

Milena Kirova, Bibleyskata zhena. Mehanizmi na konstruirane, politiki na izobrazjavane v Staria zavet (Biblical femininity. Mechanisms of construction, policies of representation in the Old Testament)

Stefania Mihailescu, Emanciparea femeii romane. Studiu si antologie de Texte. Vol. II (1919–1948) (The emancipation of the Romanian woman. Study and anthology of texts.Vol. 2 [1919–1948])

Mihaela Miroiu, Nepret uitele femei (Priceless women)

Cynthia Simmons and Nina Perlina, Writing the Siege of Leningrad. Women’s Diaries, Memoirs and Documentary Prose

Maria Todorova, Balkan Family Structure and the European Pattern. Demographic Developments in Ottoman Bulgaria 258

Nancy Wingfield and Maria Bucur, eds., Gender and War in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe

Elizabeth A.Wood, Performing Justice: Agitation Trials in Early Soviet Russia