Modern sport was born at the same time as modern mobility. Sport became one of the biggest promotional tools, first through cycle competitions, then car races. First intended for the wealthy, motor sports soon invited the middle classes to enter into a culture of freedom and social advancement which accompanied new forms of mobility. However, the links between sport and mobility are not restricted to motor sport or publicity. Indeed modern sport is a child of modern mobility, and just as the spread of new forms of mobility played a fundamental role in the passage from rural to urban societies, the transport revolution accelerated the decline of the traditional games and made possible the invention of contemporary sport and of global sports culture and space.
Plural Citizenship and Social Inclusion in Brazil
Carla Guerrón Montero
I explore the relationships among state, culture and politics in the context of the largest educational project of social inclusion, local participation and citizenship in the Municipality of Camaçari, state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The City of Knowledge (Instituto Raimundo Pinheiro – Cidade do Saber), or CDS, offers free access to education, cultural events, and sports and leisure activities to economically disadvantaged children and adults, based on the concept of ‘plural citizenship’, the understanding that wider access to education, culture and sports shortens social distances and generates sustainable human development. Concepts of social inclusion, local participation, critical thinking and constructions of citizenship are applied, tested and contradicted on the ground. Sustainability is experienced as sustainable human development; sustainable urbanism; environmental sustainability and challenges to the sustainability of CDS, a community of practice where stakeholders are potentially producing a new way to understand what it means to be a modern Brazilian citizen.
Beside the Seaside with Lewis Carroll
This article explores some of the sports and leisure activities of Lewis Carroll. He is well known for his playfulness in his writings but relatively few works have explored what he was doing in his holiday time. Away from the ivory towers of Oxford University, he would travel to the south coast to explore the seaside towns such as Brighton and Eastbourne. He was well aware of the games and sports of the Victorian age and acquired an interest in aquatics. He was interested in young girls and watched then playing on the beach, recording them in his diary. As a spectator it is impossible to know what his motives were but they suggest that play has a negative side – i.e., the player being played with.
Women, Sport, and Fox-Hunting in Britain, 1860–1914
In the years between 1860 and 1914, more women than ever pursued equestrian activities throughout Britain. A study of riding manuals for ladies shows why these pursuits became so popular and how female equestrians used sports such as fox-hunting to revise, but not reject, traditional gender roles. Well before the First World War, many British women practised and encouraged the masculine style of riding astride rather than the traditional feminine style of riding sidesaddle. As women riders worked to make this style both acceptable and respectable, they helped to redefine social roles and ideas about proper feminine behaviour which directly or indirectly contributed to the women's rights movement. In these ways, British women were able to use their participation in equestrian activities to advance strong, independent identities for themselves while also helping to create and reinforce a specifically British national identity through horse sports.
Empowering the Body and 'Noble Death'
Michael Roberts and Arthur Saniotis
Facing death with equanimity and with a honed, trained body is an expression of sheer power. When a group of like-minded individuals confronts an oppositional force with equal mental and bodily capacities, whether on a sports field or in a warring conflict, the result is power compounded. Each article in this special section ‘confronts’ such powers. Together they explore several regionally specific projects in Asia in which dying for a cause is seen as a virtue.
Boyhood Studies at 10
Diederik F. Janssen
It is my very great pleasure to introduce the tenth-anniversary 2017 volume of Boyhood Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal.
The present Spring issue is a collection of contributions about boys in global sports contexts, guest edited by Adam White, qualitative researcher at the Sport and Exercise Research Centre of the University of Winchester’s Department for Sport and Exercise Science. Adam has done an excellent job in bringing together contributions from fields as diverse as the history of sport, sport sociology, and sport psychology.
L'œuvre de Durkheim permet de recenser différents ensembles d'activités cohérentes : le jeu au sens large, prédilection d'une longue tradition philosophique les jeux récréatifs, envisagés principalement dans les sociétés primitives ; les sports de compétition, notamment d'équipe ; l'éducation physique ; la participation associative, notamment estudiantine ou péri-scolaire. Des auteurs, qui sont identifiés comme appartenant à l'École durkheimienne, abordent eux aussi les thèmes liés du jeu et du sport. Il s'agit, d'une manière particulière, de Célestin Bouglé, Charles Lalo, Marcel Mauss et du 'médecin capitaine J. Escalier'. La présente étude porte sur cet intérêt, au demeurant mal connu, de Durkheim et de son groupe.
Patriotic Youth Organizations in French Indochina during World War II
Although colonizers generally repressed emergent national movements as potential vehicles of national liberation, the French encouraged patriotic mobilizations in Indochina in the early 1940s as a way to counteract Thai irredentists, Vietnamese revolutionaries, and Japanese occupiers and their claims of “Asia for Asians.”1 Here, colonial authorities sought to build allegiance to the empire by “patriotizing” youth attitudes through sports activities and youth corps. Participation in such youth organizations mushroomed in Indochina between 1940 and 1945, gaining over a million members in that short span.2 The governor general of Indochina reported 600,000 members in youth corps in February 1944 alone.
Hegemonic Boyhood Masculinity as Depicted in Boy’s Life Magazine, 1911–2012
Susan M. Alexander and Kelsey Collins
Hegemonic masculinity is a fluid concept that varies according to historical period and social and cultural location. While much has been written about hegemonic masculinity as experienced by adult men, research is lacking on hegemonic masculinity in boyhood from an historical perspective. Using a quantitative content analysis of images on the covers of Boy’s Life magazine, this study finds three distinct historically specific images of hegemonic American boyhood masculinity: boys who serve their country as patriotic scouts in uniform; boys who admire celebrities, particularly professional athletes; and a branded boyhood in which boys wear brand name products while engaging in sports activities.
Partisan Politics in Richard Ford's Independence Day
Richard Ford's Independence Day (1995) was the first novel to win both the Pulitzer Prize and the PEN/Faulkner Award. The novel continues the story of Frank Bascombe, begun in Ford's 1986 novel, The Sportswriter. By the time of Independence Day, Bascombe has given up sports-writing for real estate (and a sideline business of running a hot-dog stand, where he employs a Republican by the name of Karl Bemish). While significant portions of the novel involve Bascombe practising his trade, the novel's primary storyline involves his tour of various sports halls of fame with his son, Paul, over the course of the 4th of July weekend in 1988. The aim of the pilgrimage is to connect with Paul – a teenager who has run foul of the law and his stepfather, Charley O'Dell, who has married Bascombe's ex-wife, Ann – but it allows Bascombe to digress on the merits of real estate, 'The Declaration of Independence', marriage/divorce/parenting, and, most important for this paper, the differences between liberalism and conservatism.