Substantially broadening the scope of previous scholarship on Isabella Bird's Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, this article draws attention to the editorial reworking that transformed the two-volume text (1880) into the abridged popular edition (1885), arguing that it is the latter that marks itself more successfully as a "travel" - not "touristic" - account. Moreover, in its redefinition of Yezo (Ezo, Hokkaido) as a climactic destination, many of the instabilities and anxieties of the Honshu travels are herein managed. While this process is quite clearly contingent on an assertion of Bird's difference from the Ainu, particularly in her adopted role as ethnologist/ethnographer, it is effected most successfully through the transfer of tropes of "savagery" from Ainu to Japanese.
Editorial Change and Yezo in Isabella Bird's Unbeaten Tracks in Japan
The treatment of cultural difference and diversity by French-speaking cartoonists has changed radically over the last few decades, as four articles in this special issue demonstrate. What has not changed since the nineteenth century is the centrality of these themes to comics, which have been a globalizing medium in a shrinking world throughout the period. French-language comics are exemplary of these transformations, insofar as France was a major imperialist power during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Moreover, France has long been home to ethnic and religious minorities, and was a major center of immigration during the twentieth century. These socio-historical trends have left a huge imprint on comics within France itself, but the French also exported the form along with their language to most of their colonies, which has given rise to (post-)colonial traditions of cartooning in French-speaking regions across the globe.
The ban on almost all previously approved textbooks in occupied Germany in 1945 brought about a turning point in the history of reading primers in this country. This article examines the requirements that textbooks had to fulfill in order to be approved by the authorities of the various occupation zones. In spite of differing sociopolitical and pedagogical attitudes and conditions, reading primersin all occupied zones shared the theme of children’s play and harmonious everyday life. However, a comparative analysis of the primers reveals significant differences that cannot be explained exclusively as a consequence of influence exerted by occupying powers. Rather, these differences resulted from the context in which each primer appeared.
Identities in Transformation after World War I
This special issue explores the theme of essentialist discourses about languages, human collectivities, and human diversity during the interwar years, outside of explicitly racist or antisemitic perspectives.
From the Drama of Production to the Production of Drama
Gluckman's paper, "The Bridge," challenged received social anthropology, initially in segregated South Africa, at the LSE, and more generally, by illustrating that professional observers and participants in social situations are profoundly mutually interinvolved with one another despite wide cultural differences. While retracing his own history within it, the present writer relates this new anthropology to the methods of modernist literature (and to changing natural science approaches) in which writers such as Joyce and Woolf, and more recent successors, revealed the culture of an epoch in the closely analyzed incidents of even a single day. They paralleled Freud's methods in psychoanalysis and the specific analyses of discrete political situations in Marx, as well as in later developments of television, film, and the visual arts. After Gluckman's move to the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Oxford, and finally Manchester, he and his colleagues and students are shown as developing this interpretive method in very varied contexts.
Almost thirty years ago, Margaret Thatcher infamously declared that there is no such thing as society. She was followed, a few years later, by anthropologists eager to dismantle the concept of society, albeit for really quite different reasons. Maybe this time the anthropologists got there ahead of the politicians. Some twenty-five years after anthropologists seriously started to question their particular multiculturalism, politicians of quite some influence have declared it defunct.
Philip McCosker and Ed Kessler
This text introduces the section of articles resulting from a panel discussion of the Roman Catholic text ‘“The Gifts and the Calling of God are Irrevocable (Rom 11. 29)”: A Reflection on Theological Questions Pertaining to Catholic-Jewish Relations on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of “Nostra Aetate” at St Edmund’s College, Cambridge, in January 2016.
Spectacles of Otherness in Eighteenth-Century Illustrated Travel Books
The scene is set. Father Time reaches up to tie back the heavy swathes of curtain and reveals the extraordinary spectacle. But we are not the only viewers. Looking intently at what lies before her is an angelic scribe, who, quill in hand, records what she sees. To us, the angel’s words are illegible, the marks of ink only just visible along the top edge of the large manuscript she holds. Her divine text, however, has an earthly counterpart: the very Volume that we have open before us.
Temporal complexity and generational clashes in an East German city
Hoyerswerda, Germany's fastest-shrinking city, faces problems with the future that seem initially unrelated to the past and yet excite manifold conflicting accounts of it. The multiple and conflicting temporal references employed by Hoyerswerdians indicate that the temporal regime of postsocialism is accompanied, if not overcome, by the temporal framework of shrinkage. By reintroducing the analytical domain of the future, I show that local temporal knowledge practices are not historically predetermined by a homogenous postsocialist culture or by particular generational experiences. Rather, they exhibit what I call temporal complexity and temporal flexibility-creative uses of a variety of coexisting temporal references. My ethnographic material illustrates how such expressions of different forms of temporal reasoning structure social relations within and between different generations. Corresponding social groups are not simply divided by age, but are united through shared and heavily disputed negotiations of the post-Cold War era's contemporary crisis.
Tradition, Ecology and the Public Role of Ethnology
The folk, who have been exorcised from contemporary academic concern, are now replaced with the populace. Simultaneously, places as ecological loci of meaning and social relations have been discarded in favour of globalised spaces. Arguably, the contemporary obsession with proving the inauthenticity of tradition is itself an essentialising discourse. This obsession has helped destroy places and their ecological relationships. European ethnology originated in the Enlightenment pursuit of good governance and social improvement, which rendered it an instrument of political control - putting the folk in their place. By critically reconstructing the public role of ethnology, we can redirect the ethnological searchlight. Should not the responsible ethnologist, rather than colluding in evictions of the folk from their place, cultivate a respectfully critical understanding of social, economic, political and ecological contexts, working with the folk reflexively, to help reclaim their place.