This article is concerned with social constructions of identity as they are manifest in the charter tourism resorts of Magaluf and Palmanova on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca. Based on ethnographic fieldwork involving periods of participant observation, the article highlights the ways in which mediators of tourists’ experiences feed into and off ideas of national identity and how these are practiced, consumed, and performed as an effervescent Britishness. At the same time, the article explores the ways in which this Britishness is informed by regional identities and differences linked to senses of self. The article highlights issues relating to social cohesion at a broad level in society, which has implications for inclusivity at a time when, post-Brexit referendum, these issues appear ever more urgent.
(Dis)uniting the Kingdom on Holiday
Bio-Sand Water Filters and Improved Wood Stoves in San Miguel Totonicapán
This article explores the efforts of an indigenous non-governmental organisation (NGO) to solve two related problems in San Miguel Totonicapán: the lack of clean drinking water and deforestation. Drawing on participant observation conducted during field stays over 10 years and survey data collected over 18 months, the article examines the affordability of bio-sand drinking water filters and high-efficiency wood cooking stoves. It considers whether savings over typical current practices for the procurement of drinking water and cooking fuel off set the purchase price of new sustainable technologies. The article also outlines data-driven recommendations offered to the NGO. While there are significant obstacles to market distribution, the acquisition of a bio-sand water filter or an improved wood stove makes good economic sense for households that presently purchase drinking water or firewood.
LA Gang Tours and the White Control of Mobility
Sarah Sharma and Armonds R. Towns
LA Gang Tours went on its inaugural ride through Los Angeles in 2010. Black and Latino former gang members from South Los Angeles lead the bus tours, sharing personal stories of gang life with mostly white tourists. A popular critique of the tour is that it facilitates a tourist gaze. However, we argue that to focus on the tourist gaze misses a more pressing opportunity to examine the production of whiteness. We shift the focus to consider the bus’s movement and the power it exerts in transforming the spatial and temporal dynamics of South Los Angeles. Based on participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and discourse analysis of materials surrounding the tours, we found that the tour lays the figurative foundations for gentrifi cation and reconfi rms a white control of mobility in the neighborhood. Th is white control of mobility extends beyond Los Angeles to impact the lives of people of color throughout the United States.
Examining a Mobility Hub in the “Redevelopment and Enhancement” of Downtown Tallahassee
Christopher M. McLeod, Matthew I. Horner, Matthew G. Hawzen and Mark DiDonato
People experiencing homelessness use service centers, shelters, missions, and other voluntary organizations to access material resources and social networks. Because these service hubs have a dense array of resources, people sometimes incorporate them into their daily movements around urban space, which results in patterns or tendencies called mobility systems. Drawing on participant observation, document analysis, and spatial analytics via geographic information systems (GIS), we describe the mobility system organized around one homeless services center in Tallahassee, Florida. Moreover, we present a case study of how this homeless services center was moved away from downtown to an upgraded facility to show how city administrators manage homeless mobility systems when they are deemed unsafe for downtown redevelopment. The case supports previous studies that found punitive and supportive strategies are used together, but adds how mobility and “network capital” can be used to evaluate center relocations in the future.
Common-Pool Resources and Longitudinal Change in a Brazilian Community
John Marr Ditty and Maria Eugênia Totti
Common-pool resources (CPRs) are subtractable resources that are physically or institutionally available for many users. The present study sought primary participant observation and focus group data on a Brazilian CPR-dependent community. It analyzes this data through the lens of CPR theory to assess ongoing local natural resource management efforts against longitudinal changes related to large-scale state and private development projects. The findings indicate that real or perceived changes related to the resources, technology, human populations, and decision-making processes in the study area have disrupted social arrangements and resulted in natural resource degradation. The article argues that, in order to achieve sustainability objectives, CPR-guided policy formulation must consider the social embeddedness of community-based actors and resources within their wider historical and social contexts, as well as user attitudes and relations among shifting conditions on multiple scales.
This article presents an analysis of the evolution of ethnographic museums in Tunisia, tracing their development from the period of French colonial rule until the present. It documents and interprets the trajectory of museography in the country over nearly a century, demonstrating changes and continuities in role, setting and architecture across shifting ideological landscapes, from the colonial, to the postcolonial to the more recent revolutionary setting. It is argued that Tunisian ethnographic museums, both in their processes of conception behind the scenes and in their scenography itself, have been key sites in which to read debates about national identity. The article excavates the evolution of paradigms in which Tunisian popular identity has been expressed through the ethnographic museum, from the modernist notion of 'indigenous authenticity' to efforts at nation-building after independence, and more recent conceptions of cultural diversity. Based on a combination of archival research, participant observation and interviews with past and present protagonists in the Tunisian museum field, this research brings to light new material on an understudied area.
A Family Portrait
Inspired by the examples of Stewart (1996) and Weston (2009), this article is an experiment in narrative form. It portrays the 'cultural poetics' (Stewart 1996) of lives lived in and through experiences of poverty in contemporary London and considers the potential of long-term participant-observation fieldwork, and the development of relations of mutual obligation in the field, to create a collaborative anthropology de fined by a politics of mutually transformative action. The article enters into debate about the effects of changing structural inequalities, which differentially impact on the post-industrial urban neighbourhoods of the U.S.A., the U.K. and Europe (Waquant 2008; 2012). Waquant's work is taken to be a rallying cry for Europe and the U.K. to wake up from the American Dream of neo-liberalism. The 'utter desolation' (Waquant 2012: 66) of life in the worst of the U.S.A.'s post-industrial urban housing projects and, to an extent, in France, demands a reaction from and suggests (especially post-August 2011 riots), that the time is now to debate how to prevent further deterioration in British cities. The article should be read as two parts in conversation with each other. The first section is an experiment in narrative form and hence the reader is asked to bear with and consider the fruitfulness of the departure from conventional scholarly form. In the second part of the article academic insight is drawn out in more standardized form, with a more usual engagement with literature, highlighting of relevant points and movement towards the formation of argument.
Maria Claudia Mejía Gil and Claudia Puerta Silva
*Full article is in Spanish
English abstract: Increased consumption of goods and services has contributed to environmental crises. Responsible consumption movements and the factors that contribute to the formation of pro-environmental behaviors have emerged in the Global North. Few studies have advanced in identifying the factors that affect the appropriation of pro-environmental practices in the Global South, specifically in cities of countries with emerging economies and fast urbanization. Through semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation conducted with 34 families from different socioeconomic categories in Medellin, Colombia, we addressed the following questions: Do environmental concerns influence consumption and waste practices? What factors affect the appropriation of environmental practices? Although different factors limit responsible consumption, the results of this study show that pro-environmental practices related to consumption and waste contribute to the formation of pro-environment citizenships.
Spanish abstract: El aumento en el consumo de bienes y servicios ha contribuido a la crisis ambiental. Pocos estudios han avanzado en identificar factores que inciden en la apropiación de prácticas proambientales en el Sur Global, específicamente en ciudades de países con economías emergentes. Mediante observación no participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas a 34 familias de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos de Medellín, Colombia, abordamos las siguientes preguntas: ¿la preocupación ambiental influye en las prácticas de consumo y desecho? y ¿cuáles factores inciden en la apropiación de prácticas proambientales? A partir de los resultados identificamos que, aunque hay más factores que limitan el consumo responsable, se puede argumentar que en las prácticas proambientales de consumo y desecho se observa la formación de ciudadanías proambientales.
French abstract: L’augmentation de la consommation de biens et services a contribué à la crise environnementale. Pour le Nord Global, les mouvements de consommation responsable et les facteurs intervenant dans la formation de comportements pro-environnementaux ont été exposés dans la littérature. En revanche, peu d’études ont avancé dans l’identification des facteurs qui affectent l’appropriation des pratiques proenvironnementales dans les pays du Sud Global, en particulier dans des villes de pays à économie émergente et à urbanisation rapide. Grâce à des observations non participantes et à des entretiens semi-structurés avec 34 familles de différents niveaux socio-économiques de Medellin, en Colombie, nous abordons les questions suivantes : Les préoccupations environnementales influencent-elles les pratiques de consommation et de gestion des déchets ? et quels facteurs influent sur l’appropriation des pratiques environnementales chez les familles interviewés ? Sur la base des résultats, nous identifions que bien qu’il y ait plus de facteurs qui limitent la consommation responsable, on peut affirmer que dans les pratiques de consommation et de déchets favorables à l’environnement, on observe la formation de citoyennetés pro-environnementales.
Stacy M. K. George
the rituals, symbols, emotions, and various religious interactional procedures adopted by the Tea Party. Using qualitative methods, including in-depth participant observation in public Tea Party meetings and personal interviews with Tea Partiers, this
Jack Hunter, Annelin Eriksen, Jon Mitchell, Mattijs van de Port, Magnus Course, Nicolás Panotto, Ruth Barcan, David M. R. Orr, Girish Daswani, Piergiorgio Di Giminiani, Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen, Sofía Ugarte, Ryan J. Cook, Bettina E. Schmidt and Mylene Mizrahi
intellectual motives behind its beliefs and practices. The book is based on the author’s participant observation in the religious lives of pastors and members of three prominent Haitian churches in New Providence—two Baptist churches and one Nazarene church