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Differences in temporal reasoning

Temporal complexity and generational clashes in an East German city

Felix Ringel

Hoyerswerda, Germany's fastest-shrinking city, faces problems with the future that seem initially unrelated to the past and yet excite manifold conflicting accounts of it. The multiple and conflicting temporal references employed by Hoyerswerdians indicate that the temporal regime of postsocialism is accompanied, if not overcome, by the temporal framework of shrinkage. By reintroducing the analytical domain of the future, I show that local temporal knowledge practices are not historically predetermined by a homogenous postsocialist culture or by particular generational experiences. Rather, they exhibit what I call temporal complexity and temporal flexibility-creative uses of a variety of coexisting temporal references. My ethnographic material illustrates how such expressions of different forms of temporal reasoning structure social relations within and between different generations. Corresponding social groups are not simply divided by age, but are united through shared and heavily disputed negotiations of the post-Cold War era's contemporary crisis.

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Action Speaks Louder Than Words?

Trust, Trustworthiness and Social Transformation in Slovakia

Davide Torsello

This article argues that trust cannot be easily isolated as a form of social interaction without the risk of overseeing the nuance between practices and ideas. Using a case study of a rural community in post-socialist Slovakia, the author examines how trust and trustworthiness are built and applied under conditions of profound social transformation. Following mainstream anthropological approaches to post-socialism, he shows that this transformation has deeply affected the patterns of local social interaction. Moreover, following Slovakia's recent EU accession, increased social and work mobility have further complicated the picture. If trust remains a crucial idea underpinning individual social choices, cognitive constructions of trustworthiness tend to diverge from practices. This is due, among other factors, to the difficulty of calibrating spatial and temporal mental models of trustworthiness with trust as social action.

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Introduction

Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe

Jill Owczarzak

The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between “East” and “West” and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

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Elena Shulman, Stalinism on the Frontier of Empire: Women and State Formation in the Soviet Far East Andrew A. Gentes

Michael Melancon, The Lena Goldfields Massacre and the Crisis of the Late Tsarist State David G. Anderson

Chris Hann, “Not the Horse We Wanted!” Postsocialism, Neoliberalism and Eurasia Katy Fox

Deborah Manley, ed., The Trans-Siberian Railway: A Traveller’s Anthology Steven G. Marks

Sylvie Beyries and Virginie Vaté, Les civilisations du renne d’hier et d’aujourd’hui: approaches ethnohistoriques, archéologiques et anthropologiques Betsy Venard

Centre d’Etudes Mongoles et Sibériennes de l’Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes. 2005-2006, Etudes mongoles et sibériennes, centrasiatiques et tibétaines David G. Anderson

K. David Harrison, When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World’s Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge Myrdene Anderson

Ivan Valentinovich Rassadin, Khoziaistvo, byt i kul’tura tofalarov [The Economy, Way of Life, and Culture of the Tofalar] Robert W. Montgomery

Lyudmila I. Missonova, Uilta Sakhalina: Bol’shie problem malochislennogo naroda [Uilta of the Sakhalin Island: Large Issues of an Indigenous Community] Alexander B. Dolitsky

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Disappearing peasants?

On land, rent, and revenue in post-1989 Romania

Cerasela Voiculescu

This article explores the recent transformations of the Romanian peasantry and critically discusses interpretations of these changes as either indicating the persistence or the disappearance of peasants in Romania. It shows that beyond the labels of depeasantization and repeasantization, which are extensively used to describe rural scenarios under socialism and postsocialism, it is important to take analytic account of the more complex social relations between different actors that are developing under the impact of interacting local and global processes. Given the sharp differences between peasants and the new class of agricultural rentiers, as well as the variations within the latter group, the different rent regimes in which peasants negotiate their control over land and subsistence involve complex relationships and statuses. The article concludes by hypothesizing possible ways in which all of these relationships could be transformed in the long run in the new context of the EU agricultural policy and by discussing two possible scenarios for the Romanian rural landscape, namely, those of peripheral and nonperipheral capitalism.

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Rethinking the Human and the Social

Towards a Multiverse of Transformations

Ananta Kumar Giri

Our understanding of the human and the social, as well as our realization of these, are in need of fundamental transformations, as our present day use of these are deeply anthropocentric, Eurocentric and dualistic. Human development discourse looks at the human in an adjectival way, so does the social quality approach to the category of the social: neither reflects the profound rethinking both the categories have gone through even in the Western theoretical imagination (for example, the critique of humanism in philosophy and the critique of socio-centrism in sociology). In this context, the present essay explores the ways these two categories are being rethought in Western theoretical imagination and discusses the non-anthropocentric and post-anthropocentric conceptualization and realization of the human, which resonates with non-socio-centric and post-social conceptions of society. The essay also opens these two categories to cross-cultural and planetary conversations and on the way rethinks subjectivity, sovereignty, temporality and spatiality. It pleads for a foundational rethinking of human security and social quality and for creative intertwining between the two with visions and practices of practical spirituality.

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Polya Ilieva and Thomas M. Wilson

This article examines forms of ideological and political responses to European integration and Europeanisation that are either negative in form and function or that are projected as such for local and national purposes. The concept of 'Euroscepticism' is shown here as a useful linguistic and sociological starting point for examining the transformative power of the EU in the politics of all levels of European societies. The ways in which people express their support, opposition or ennui in regard to the role of 'Europe' in their lives delineates here the instrumentalism in the way they approach advancing European integration. The processes of resisting, negotiating and adapting (and adapting to) European integration are offered here as topics of anthropological significance in their own right. A case study from one former socialist country, Bulgaria, illustrates what may be suggested as a commonplace sentiment throughout the EU - a feeling of marginality due to the disconnection and disaffection that remain at the heart of Euroscepticism in all of its forms. Bulgaria offers a frame through which to reflect on the reformulations in local, regional and national political society as they relate to supranational and transnational forces throughout Europe, and to illustrate how an anthropological attention to the issues of post-socialism in Central and Eastern Europe may bene fit from an examination of the new forces of European integration.

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Ayse Durakbasa, Raluca Maria Popa, Ralitsa Muharska, Nadya Radulova and Krassimira Daskalova

Serpil Çakır, Osmanlı Kadın Hareketi [The Ottoman women’s movement], Istanbul: Metis, 1994, second edition 1996; 350 pp. (pb) 13,20 YTL. ISBN: 975-342-044-7

Krassimira Daskalova ed., Voices of Their Own. Oral History Interviews of Women, trans. Ralitsa Muharska and Elitsa Stoitsova, Sofia: Polis Publishers, 2004, 207 pp. (pb). ISBN 954-796-008-3

Kristen Ghodsee, Red Riviera: Gender, Tourism, and Postsocialism on the Black Sea, Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2005, 174 pp., 2 appendices, $74.95 (cloth). ISBN cloth 0-8223-3650-2; $21.95 (pb). ISBN 0-8223-3662-6

Irina Novikova and Dimitar Kambourov, eds., Men in the Global World: Integrating Post-Socialist Perspectives, Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2003, 250 pp. (pb). ISBN 952-10-1308-7

Olga Todorova, Zhenite ot tsentralnite Balkani prez osmanskata epoha (XV–XVII vek). (Women of the Central Balkans during the early centuries of Ottoman Rule [fifteenth-seventeenth Centuries]). Sofia: Gutenberg, 2004, 515 pp., 12 BGL (pb). ISBN954-9943-85-2

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Que reste-t-il de nos amours?

The Expectations of 1989–1991 Revisited

Francisco Martínez

) order, but a different sort of instability. Furthermore, the sense that we are leaving behind a certain regime without entering a new one – in fact, still very much enmeshed in it – is giving post-socialism an unexpected relevance for understanding

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Linda L. Clark, Olga Gurova, Elena Bedreag, Daniela Koleva, Kristen Ghodsee, Roza Dimova, Evguenia Davidova, Maija Jäppinen, Tanja Petrović, Valentina Mitkova, Daniela Naydeva, Jelena Bakić, Irina Genova, Galina Goncharova, Michelle DenBeste, Katarina Loncarevic, Avital H. Bloch, Leda Papastefanaki, Olena Styazhkina and Eszter Varsa

James C. Albisetti, Joyce Goodman, and Rebecca Rogers, eds., Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century

Djurdja Bartlett, FashionEast: The Spectre That Haunted Socialism

Ioan Bolovan, Diana Covaci, Daniela Deteşan, Marius Eppel, and Elena Crinela Holom, eds., În căutarea fericirii. Viaţa familială în spaţiul românesc în secolele XVIII-XX (Looking for happiness. Family life in the Romanian territory from the eighteenth to the twentieth century)

Ulf Brunnbauer, “Die sozialistische Lebensweise“: Ideologie, Gesellschaft, Familie und Politik in Bulgarien (1944-1989) (“The socialist way of life“: Ideology, society, family and politics in Bulgaria [1944-1989])

Gerald Creed, Masquerade and Postsocialism: Ritual and Cultural Dispossession in Bulgaria

Krassimira Daskalova and Tatyana Kmetova, eds., Pol i Prehod, 1938-1958 (Gender and Transition, 1938-1958)

Evdoxios Doxiadis, The Shackles of Modernity: Women, Property, and the Transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Greek State (1750-1850)

Katalin Fábián, ed., Domestic Violence in Postcommunist States: Local Activism, National Policies, and Global Forces

Kristen Ghodsee, Lost in Transition: Ethnographies of Everyday Life after Communism

Liubov Krichevskaya, No Good without Reward: Selected Writings

Tomislav Z. Longinović, Vampire Nation: Violence as Cultural Imaginary

Ivana Panteli´, Partizanke kao građanke: društvena emancipacija partizanki u Srbiji, 1945-1953 (Female partisans as citizens: Social emancipation of female partisans in Serbia, 1945-1953)

Bojana Pejić, ERSTE Foundation and Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, eds., Gender Check: A Reader. Art and Theory in Eastern Europe

Christian Promitzer, Sevasti Trubeta, and Marius Turda, eds., Health, Hygiene and Eugenics in Southeastern Europe to 1945

Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild, Equality and Revolution: Women's Rights in the Russian Empire, 1905-1917 Reviewed by Michelle DenBeste

Giulia Sissa, Sex and Sensuality in the Ancient World

Lidija Stojanovik-Lafazanovska and Ermis Lafanovski, The Exodus of the Macedonians from Greece: Women's Narratives about WWII and Their Exodus

Lex Heerma van Voss, Els Hiemstra-Kuperus, and Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, eds., The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650-2000

Galina I. Yermolenko, ed., Roxolana in European Literature, History and Culture

Susan Zimmermann, Divide, Provide, and Rule: An Integrative History of Poverty Policy, Social Policy, and Social Reform in Hungary under the Habsburg Monarchy