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Guillaume Lecomte

The comic book series La Vie secrète des jeunes is a sardonic account of French young people’s behaviours witnessed from the voyeuristic viewpoint of its author-illustrator, Riad Sattouf. Despite its caricatural and non-photorealistic visual style, the work conveys a strong sense of authenticity, mixing truth claims borrowed from established non-fiction traditions (journalism, autobiography and documentary). It is also a rare example of a non-fiction comic turned into live action. This article considers the comic and its TV adaptation, and discusses film’s ability to adapt an account of truth rooted in comics ontology. The article first provides a theoretical structure that details the intricacy of repeating the truth from comic to film. Second, it highlights the way in which the comic develops its authenticity by constantly reaffirming Sattouf’s presence and subjectivity. The article aims to show that the adaptation anonymises this viewpoint in order to re-construct the authenticity of its reality.

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Kazuko Suzuki

What accounts for varying forms of adaptation of immigrants to host countries? Despite their common ethnic origin, Korean immigrants demonstrate very different adaptation pa erns in Japan and the United States. By elucidating the importance of different national peculiarities in racial ideology, this article argues that Korean immigrants are racialized differently given different circumstances and structural conditions in these two countries. Employing a cross-national comparison focusing on a single ethnic group, this study shows that cultural and racial similarities between immigrants and the mainstream of the host society do not guarantee smooth assimilation. This article concludes that in the long run, differences in modes of incorporation are more relevant to immigrant adaptation than visible racial or cultural differences between the immigrants and the mainstream of the host society.

Spanish ¿Cómo se explican las diversas formas de adaptación de inmigrantes en los países receptores? A pesar de su origen étnico común, los inmigrantes coreanos han mostrado patrones de adaptación muy diferentes en Japón y los Estados Unidos. Al mostrar la importancia de las diferentes peculiaridades nacionales en la ideología racial, este artículo argumenta que los inmigrantes coreanos son racializados diferencialmente de acuerdo a las distintas circunstancias y las condiciones estructurales en estos dos países. A través de una comparación transnacional centrada en un solo grupo étnico, este estudio muestra que las similitudes raciales y culturales entre los inmigrantes y la mayoría de la sociedad de acogida, no garantizan una fácil asimilación. En este artículo se concluye que, en el largo plazo, las diferencias en los modos de incorporación son más relevantes para la adaptación de los inmigrantes que las visibles diferencias raciales / culturales entre los inmigrantes y la generalidad de la sociedad receptora.

French Comment expliquer les formes variables de l'adaptation des immigrants dans le pays hôte ? En dépit de leur origine ethnique commune, les immigrants coréens ont montré des modes d'adaptation très différents au Japon et aux Etats-Unis. En montrant l'importance de certaines particularités nationales pour l'idéologie raciale, cet article soutient que ces immigrants coréens sont racialement différenciés en fonction des situations et des conditions structurelles différentes dans ces deux pays. Par le biais d'une comparaison transnationale portant sur un seul groupe ethnique, ce e étude montre que les similarités culturelles et raciales entre les immigrants et la société-hôte traditionnelle ne sont pas les garantes d'une assimilation aisée. Cet article conclut que, sur le long-terme, les modes d'incorporation sont plus importants pour l'adaptation des immigrants que les différences raciales/culturelles visibles entre les immigrants et la société traditionnelle de l'Etat-hôte.

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Shylock in the Cinema

Michael Radford’s The Merchant of Venice

Maria-Clara Versiani Galery

This article discusses different responses to Michael Radford’s 2004 screen rendition of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. It examines selected newspaper reviews, as well as academic papers that critique the filmic adaptation of Shakespeare’s play, taking into account its representation of Shakespeare’s Jew. The article interrogates to what extent the medium – theatre or cinema – affects the way the audience experiences the work, especially when dealing with an issue as complex as antisemitism. In this manner, Radford’s attempt to historicize the events in Merchant is viewed as a form of attenuating the antisemitic elements in the play.

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The Taming of the Tigress

Fāṭima Rushdī and the First Performance of Shrew in Arabic

David C. Moberly

Few scholars have addressed Arabic adaptations of The Taming of the Shrew, though it remains among the most popular Shakespearean comedies in the Arab world. The first Arabic performance of Shrew in Egypt in 1930 marked a significant landmark in the history of Arab Shakespeares, as the translator rendered the play in colloquial Egyptian Arabic, rather than in the formal, classical Arabic accessible to the educated elite. As such, the play offered the uneducated Egyptian public – and women in particular – unprecedented access to this work of Shakespeare. Instrumental to the adaptation’s success was Fāṭima Rushdī, owner and lead actress of the company that performed this first Arabic Shrew. In this and other roles as one of Egypt’s first renowned Shakespearean actresses, Rushdī not only effectively recast Shakespeare in an Egyptian mould, but also cast Egyptians in a Shakespearean mould, with effects that still echo today.

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Violence makes safe in South African prisons

Prison gangs, violent acts, and victimization among inmates

Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard and Sasha Gear

That gangs have a prominent place in South African prison violence—like in many other geographical contexts—has become increasingly clear. Based on qualitative research among South African inmates and ex-inmates, we propose that prison gangs be considered adaptation strategies to the extremely coercive and oppressive environments of prisons. We focus on the relationship between gang involvement in prison, violent acts among inmates, and the risk of being subjected to violence during incarceration. By providing emic perspectives, we aim to demonstrate how inmates negotiate three types of social roles, largely defined by their ability and willingness to use violence: franse, gangster, and wyfie. Our findings suggest that prison gangs may jeopardize the personal safety of inmates, but can also paradoxically offer some inmates the opportunity to establish a sense of safety and agency by avoiding random violence.

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Victor Neumann

This article explores the controversial issue of concepts defining the East-Central European Romanian and Hungarian identities (nem, neam, popor, nép). It specifically focuses on the translation and adaptation of the German concept of nation by examining the inclusive or exclusive meanings this concept acquired in these two languages and political cultures during the first half of the nineteenth century.

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Changes in the Weather

A Sri Lankan Village Case Study

Mariella Marzano

As the impacts of climate change are expected to increase, there is growing concern in development contexts over how best to assist the poor and vulnerable to adapt to such changes whilst ensuring environmental and livelihood security. Climate variability is a persistent and progressively more worrying feature in the everyday lives of individuals and communities in rural areas around the world and there is a pressing need for comprehensive knowledge of the complex relationships between humans, and between them and their environment. Thus there is a growing movement towards bridging the gap between top-down decision-making and more grassroots approaches that encompass local knowledge and experiences. Drawing upon fieldwork in Sri Lanka, this article examines the potential of taking an indigenous knowledge research (IKR) approach to understanding local adaptation to climate change, specifically how local people are adapting their livelihood strategies to what they perceive to be increasing variability in weather patterns. It also explores the prospect of indigenous knowledge networks as vehicles for rapidly sharing information and building links between policy making and local reality.

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The Silence of the Page

Une trop bruyante solitude – The Graphic Novel Adaptation of Too Loud a Solitude by Bohumil Hrabal

Martha Kuhlman

This article discusses the issues faced by two French artists who have produced a bande dessinée adaptation of a novel, říliš hlučná samota ['Too Loud a Solitude'], by the Czech writer Bohumil Hrabal, and the reception of their work in the Czech comics community. In adapting the novel to another medium, the artists have not merely illustrated the original, but have used a variety of techniques intended to convey its emotional coloration and its self-referentiality. Furthermore, they have changed its context from Prague during the Communist era to twenty-first-century Lyon at a time when the jobs of print workers are threatened by out-sourcing. The article argues that the adaptation thereby enhances the contemporary resonance of the original.

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Des Gasper

“Good governance” may be viewed as governance that effectively promotes human rights, human security and human development. This article discusses human security analysis, which in certain ways offers an integration of these “human” perspectives together with a “social” orientation, by combining a person-focus with systematic investigation of the environing systems of all sorts: physical, cultural, organizational. The importance of such analysis is illustrated through the example of climate change impacts and adaptation. The article presents applications of a human security framework in governance, for policy analysis, planning and evaluation issues in climate change and other fields. The concluding section suggests that human security analysis may provide a way to apply insights from social quality analysis to detailed case investigation and policy analysis, while reducing macro-sociological abstraction and neglect of the natural environment.

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Constructing the Juristic Durkheim?

Paul Huvelin's Adaptation of Durkheimian Sociology

Roger Cotterrell

This article is concerned with law in the Durkheimian tradition: with Durkheim's approach to law and some ambiguities and limitations of this approach. What follows is part of an ongoing consideration of this subject centred on the way that Durkheim's ideas were adapted to serve the purposes of professional jurists who collaborated with him in the original project of the Année sociologique. Though several members of Durkheim's Année team had legal qualifications (Vogt 1983:177-178), only two, Paul Huvelin and Emmanuel Lévy, were actually professors of law. Colleagues in the law faculty of the University of Lyon for almost the whole of their academic careers, they were both active contributors to the journal. Lévy was in contact with Durkheim from 1896 and, as an editor and book reviewer, contributed to all volumes of the Année's first series from its commencement in 1898. Huvelin, whom Lévy first put in touch with the Durkheimians, began his association (via Marcel Mauss) in 1899 and contributed from the sixth volume, published in 1903, until the end of the first series (1931).