The year 2013 sees the fortieth anniversary of the Annual International Jewish- Christian-Muslim Student Conference (JCM) which has been co-sponsored and sustained from its beginning by Leo Baeck College. Created at the Hedwig Dransfeld Haus in Bendorf, then under the direction of Anneliese Debray, it moved to Wuppertal when the Haus closed. The partner organisations have included the Oekumenische Werkstatt (now United Evangelical Mission), Wuppertal, the Bendorfer Forum, the Deutsche Muslim-Liga, Bonn, and the Centre for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, University of Birmingham. Regular financial support has come from the German Ministry of the Interior.
The Case of the International Criminal Court
Writing in the aftermath of Adolf Eichmann’s dramatic prosecution in 1961 for his role in the Nazi genocide, Hannah Arendt suggested that the ‘need for a [permanent] international criminal court was imperative’ (Arendt 1963: 270). For Arendt, Eichmann’s trial in Jerusalem symbolized the unfortunate triumph of national interests over the demands of universal justice. In Arendt’s analysis, the Eichmann trial was flawed for a number of reasons, most notably because the Israeli government rejected the possibility of establishing an international criminal tribunal, claiming for itself the competence and jurisdiction for trying Eichmann. In the end, Arendt notes, the failure of the Israeli court consisted of the fact that it represented ‘one nation only’ and misunderstood Eichmann’s crimes as being inherently against the Jewish people rather than against humanity itself, that is, ‘against the human status’ (Arendt 1963: 268-270). As the subsequent occurrence of genocide, ethnic cleansing, and war crimes in countries as diverse as Cambodia, Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and East Timor starkly testifies, the relevance of a permanent international criminal court to contemporary world politics and international relations is undiminished more than 40 years after the Eichmann trial.
Globalisation and Literary Studies
One of post-colonialism’s enduring projects has been the attempt to describe or understand the discursive component of Empire. Founding texts such as Edward Said’s Orientalism, argued that a complementary and necessary culture of imperialism existed alongside the economic and political structures of colonisation. The claim of such work was that this culture discursively produced ideas about difference that justified the European subjugation of other races and made possible the political expansion of the European states. The attempts to extend this analysis to describe a current culture of globalisation have been limited and in some ways unsuccessful. Without repudiating the methods of post-colonialism, it is necessary to recognise that changes to the structures of international relations have seen an attendant shift in the accompanying patterns of discourse. While, undoubtedly, many of the discourses that animated colonisation remain in place, the disavowal of a continuity between globalisation and earlier imperialist or colonising phases of modernity is one of globalisation’s characteristic movements. It is, therefore, insufficient to simply identify the persistence of imperialist discourses, ‘without significant challenge’, in ways that are insensitive to new cultural formulations brought about by structural changes in international relations.
In Cosmopolitan Justice Darrel Moellendorf sets out to develop a Rawlsian theory of justice applicable to the sphere of international relations broadly conceived.1 He develops his ethical theory through an exploration of the tensions which he perceives between the early work of John Rawls found in A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism, and his later work, The Law of Peoples.2 Moellendorf’s central claim is that in the latter work Rawls, in fundamental ways, betrays crucial cosmopolitan commitments of the theory of justice as set out in the earlier corpus. Rawls’s original project was directed towards the production of a theory which would provide us with criteria for judging the justness of the basic structure of states. That work did not deal with issues of justice within the international realm. Later, in The Law of Peoples, Rawls set out to extend his theory of justice to the international sphere. Moellendorf finds fault with Rawls’s attempt to execute this. The central problem he identifies is that Rawls failed fully to realize the implications which a liberal commitment to human rights places on what morally can be claimed by states making use of the notion of sovereignty.
Arts-based approaches have been used to engage youth in health promotion activism and research in both local and international contexts. The application of art to research as a mode of inquiry has been a means of actively engaging marginalized communities such as youth in the research process in a way that allows them to creatively represent their thoughts and lives, while negotiating their power within the research environment (Wright et al. 2010). In representing their lived experiences, youth are able to name their worlds and challenge dominant culture (including the ways the media represents them) and its inherent power relations (Barndt 2008; Bagnoli 2009). Using art to do this becomes a catalyst for diff erent kinds of knowledge and knowing (Barndt 2008).
David Detmer and John Ireland
This issue of Sartre Studies International contains articles and book reviews covering an extraordinarily wide range of topics. The first two articles focus on Sartre’s thought in relation to psychoanalysis, and more specifically, on his conflicted relationship with the brilliant, controversial psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, Sartre’s Parisian contemporary. Blake Scott argues that despite fundamentally different conceptions of subjectivity and agency, Lacan does develop a sense of subjective responsibility that Scott engages effectively with Sartre’s later thought. Betty Cannon, replying directly to Scott (who had brought her own work into the discussion), offers from a clinical point of view a current critical assessment of the relations among Sartre, Freud, and Lacan. She also provides an invaluable update of her own work and practice in relation to Sartre’s existential psychoanalysis (her groundbreaking book, Sartre and Psychoanalysis, was published in 1991), as well as assessing the influence of his thought on many other schools of psychoanalytic thought and related therapies today.
Co-existence, co-operation, and communication in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina
Anders H. Stefansson
This article critically addresses the idea that ethnic remixing alone fosters reconciliation and tolerance after sectarian conflict, a vision that has been forcefully cultivated by international interventionists in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the town of Banja Luka, it presents a multi-faceted analysis of the effects of ethnic minority return on the (re)building of social relations across communal boundaries. Although returnees were primarily elderly Bosniacs who settled in parts of the town traditionally populated by their own ethnic group, some level of inter-ethnic co-existence and co-operation had developed between the returnees and displaced Serbs who had moved into these neighborhoods. In the absence of national reconciliation, peaceful co-existence in local everyday life was brought about by silencing sensitive political and moral questions related to the war, indicating a preparedness among parts of the population to once again share a social space with the Other.
Environmental mitigation and the limits of commensuration in a Chilean mining project
Focusing on a controversial gold mining project in Chile, this article examines how engineers and other mining professionals perceive and help shape Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives. Compensation agreements, environmental management, and community relations programs rest on what I call a logic of equivalence that makes the environmental consequences of mining activity commensurate with the mining companies’ mitigation plans. For example, legal codes enable engineers to measure, compare, and reconcile the costs and benefits of a project. However, the law is neither fixed nor uncontestable, and companies must respond to increased public scrutiny and the growing demands of communities, governments, and international actors. In Chile, campaigns against mining focused on the presence of glaciers at the mine site and the project’s possible effects on water availability. By introducing new moral dimensions to debates over corporate responsibility, these campaigns challenged established strategies of commensuration and existing ethical guideposts.
Governance, survival, and transition
Tomas Max Martin, Andrew M. Jefferson and Mahuya Bandyopadhyay
In December 2010 members of the Global Prisons Research Network (GPRN) met for a seminar entitled “Dissecting the 'Non-Western' Prison.” The articles showcased in this thematic section were first presented there. This introduction proposes the notion of “prison climate” as a useful way of rethinking variations and similarities across prisons. This notion directs attention away from the prison “as such” to the prison “as is” and points to the fact that the idea of prison itself is contested and changing, however hegemonic it might appear. We argue that a truly representative and international penology should go beyond the mapping of differences and similarities. Rather, the researcher should pursue the twofold question of what persists and what mutates within and across prison worlds. We advocate an ethnographic orientation to deciphering the entanglements of relations, practices, and dynamics that constitute particular prison climates and we include some reflections on the particular challenges of conducting fieldwork in prisons.
Theoretical Reflections and the Case of Early School Leaving
Elli Scambor and Victor Seidler
The paper discusses the phenomenon of the “boy crisis” in education by following trajectories which seek to describe the situation of boys at school in different countries across Europe in its complexity. The current study of the Role of Men in Gender Equality (Scambor, Wojnicka & Bergmann, eds., 2012) offers an international comparison of the situation of boys and outlines major trends related to gender disparities in education across Europe. An in-depth analysis of male early school leavers leads to a deeper understanding of boys and men as heterogeneous social groups. Relations between so called “costs” and “privileges” in education show considerable varieties due to differences between boys, with educational careers being strongly influenced by social class, “race,” and ethnicities as well as migration backgrounds.