Social policy plays a very important role in the social quality of Europe, and not only because it considerably affects the life conditions of the population. I will argue that its structure and weight affects at least as much: (a) the possibility of acknowledging as common goods social benefits such as health, education, social security; and (b) the presence of public discourse arenas about these goods, where the daily life of democracy is carried out. This is why social policy holds a great importance even for the building of European democracy, and for Europe's socio-political integration in itself.
Colonial Havana under Northern Eyes
Bonnie Shannon McMullen
This article looks at Havana of 1820 as seen through the eyes of John Howison, a young Scottish surgeon. As well as his accounts of Havana in his travel book Foreign Scenes and Travelling Recreations (1825), Howison distilled his deepest impressions of the city in a short tale in Blackwood's Magazine in 1821 called 'An Adventure in Havana'. Howison's reactions to Roman Catholicism, slavery and colonial government corruption, as well as the coarseness and exploitative nature of many foreign residents and visitors, combine with his repulsion at the pervasive presence of disease and death to present a picture that moves from objective analysis to gothic horror.
tourist writing and tourist performance from 1860 to 1914
Judith Adler has described travel as an art of performance (Adler 1989a: 1368), a way of ‘world-making’, in which the corporeal and discursive strategies adopted by the traveller moving through space from one place to another utilise the equivalent of classic aesthetic devices in the construction of the narrative through which the journey is registered and the realities it evokes for the audience whose presence is implied by the metaphor (1382–3). The audience too plays a role in the creative process in that its particular expectations constitute ‘one source of explicitly articulated standards of performance’ (1378).
It is no exaggeration to state that before the Revolution of 1958–1959 Cuba barely impinged on the French national consciousness, with the exception of the occasional role of Paris as host for international conferences on the island’s future. The island’s French colony was never large: indeed, the mausoleum in the Necropólis Cristóbal Cólon in Havana is a touching reminder of a small group, numbering no more than sixty, who, between the 1930s and the early 1960s, maintained a fragile French commercial presence.
Human-computer interaction in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century has been aided by the graphical user interface (GUI). Cinematic representations of the GUI have reflected its pervasive quotidian presence and expanded beyond to create spectacular technophilic Hollywood blockbusters. The screen-based interaction, which computers and the cinema share, offers an important point of reflection upon the embodied relationship among screen, spectator, and the onscreen computer user. By examining cinematic representations of hackers, experts, and users and the extent to which they manipulate or submit to the computer's vision, this article considers the possible future interaction between spectator and the digital medium of cinema.
Helen P. Fry
The towns of Barnstaple and Bideford in North Devon (England) have had a continuous small Jewish presence from the 1760s until the present day, however they have not always had a worshipping Jewish community. For a period of some fifty to sixty years from the 1760s, a rudimentary community was formed in Barnstaple with virtually nothing so far written or known about it. This is a reconstruction, in so far as is possible from the limited documentary evidence available, of the lives and genealogical connections of these families and their subsequent links to other south-west Jewish communities.
Beyond the Conflict-Consensus Divide
Henrik P. Bang
This article examines the consensus-conflict divide within contemporary democratic theory as manifested in the works of Jürgen Habermas, Chantal Mouffe, Jacques Rancière, and John Rawls. It relates the democratic crisis diagnosis to the presence of this conceptual divide and suggests overcoming it by focusing on the work of Michel Foucault, especially his concept of the “rectangle of the good parrhesia.” Foucault's analysis goes beyond conflict-consensus through its positive and creative reconceptualization of political authority featuring a transformative capacity linked to the idea of telling the truth.
The Politics of Masculinity, Imperialism and Big-Game Hunting in Rider Haggard's She
Animal imagery and anthropomorphic parallels abound in Rider Haggard’s fantastic African adventure, She (1887). Africa itself is presented to the reader as a landscape inhabited by ‘beastly’ natives and wild animals galore. Even the novel’s overpowering female presence, that of ‘She-who-must-be-obeyed’ (as Ayesha is known by those natives over whom she rules), is eventually reduced to a simian status. Such a textual focus, fitting comfortably into a more extensive dream of Victorian empire, lent the novel cultural, as well as fictive, power. The animal imagery helped to produce durable models of African identity and otherness which were compatible with current ideas of geography, race and human evolution.
Elizabeth Strom and Margit Mayer
National and world events shape all cities, but in Berlin they have a
physical presence. For Berliners, the Cold War was tangible, manifested
as a wall and death strip guarded by armed soldiers and attack
dogs. Today that wall is gone and, if national power brokers and the
real estate development community have their way, Berlin will soon
be a “normal” European city and German capital. Not only will the
ghosts of the Nazi past be exorcised, but any tangible inheritance of
the postwar period—in East Berlin the legacies of state socialism, in
West Berlin the strange fruits of a subsidized economy—will disappear.
Barbara Schmitter Heisler
The presence of sizable foreign-born populations (which include citizens
and non-citizens) in advanced industrial societies is the result of
national policies on immigration, refugees, and labor migration. The
consequences of these policies, however, are most visible at the local
level, where newcomers work, settle, and raise their families. While
not all immigrants live in cities, they have been particularly concentrated
in urban environments. Thus, it is hardly surprising that many
of the socioeconomic, cultural, and political issues and problems
associated with immigration and the process of immigrant settlement
are played out and magnified in cities.