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Andrea Boitani

The start of the 15th Legislature witnessed a series of promising government

initiatives on economic liberalization. By the end of June 2006,

the first set of decree measures sponsored by the minister for economic

development, Pier Luigi Bersani, had been issued. They contained a

broad, if not organic, set of reforms “in favor of the citizen-consumer.”

Then on 7 July, the minister for regional and local government, Linda

Lanzillotta, presented a bill for the reform of local public services by

delegated legislation. Resuming a reform process that had begun in the

13th Legislature (1996–2001), this measure sought to allow marketoriented

policies and regulatory incentives to penetrate sectors that

for decades had been dominated by local public monopolies and characterized

by great inefficiency, at the expense of the consumer. At the

beginning of 2007, Minister Bersani presented another raft of piecemeal

reforms. At almost the same time, and after extensive work on the

details, Prime Minister Romano Prodi presented a bill (AS 1366) containing

“provisions regarding market regulation and oversight, and the

functioning of the independent authorities responsible for them.”

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The meaning of Nandigram

Corporate land invasion, people's power, and the Left in India

Tanika Sarkar and Sumit Chowdhury

This article discusses the events at Nandigram in West Bengal where in 2006-7, a Left Front government collaborated with an Indonesian corporate group to forcibly acquire land from local peasants and construct a Special Economic Zone. The events are placed against the broad processes of accumulation by dispossession through which peasants are losing their land and corporate profits are given priority over food production. The article looks at the working and implications of the policies and the way in which a Communist Party-led government had become complicit with such processes over the last decade. It critically examines the logic that the government offered for the policies: that of the unavoidable necessity of industrialization, demonstrating that industrialization could have been done without fresh and massive land loss and that industries of the new sort do not generate employment or offset the consequences of large scale displacements of peasants. The article's central focus is on the peasant resistance in the face of the brutalities of the party cadres and the police. We explore the meaning of the victory of the peasants at Nandigram against the combined forces of state and corporate power, especially in the context of the present neo-liberal conjuncture.

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Religious Tourism

Analytical Routes through Multiple Meanings

Emerson Giumbelli

Translator : Jeffrey Hoff

detailed below. For now, it is sufficient to say that it is presented as a ‘religious tourism’ project, and one of its main supporters is a local association of ‘pilgrims’. ‘Religious tourism’ is a syntagma that may sound like a contradiction in terms—if it

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Kosher Biotech

Between Religion, Regulation, and Globalization

Johan Fischer

we shall see below. A study by Lytton (2013) shows that the US kosher market is an example of successful private sector regulation in an era of growing public concern over the government’s ability to ensure food safety. From the 1990s onward, the

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Andrea Behrends

The area around the border of Sudan and Chad, where Darfur lies, has been an unimportant and unknown backwater throughout history. Today, however, Darfur is all over the international press. Everybody knows about the grim war there. There is no oil currently in production in Darfur. However, there is oil in the south of neighboring Chad and in Southern Sudan, and there might be oil in Darfur. This article considers a case of fighting for oil when there is no oil yet. It takes into account the role of local actors doing the fighting, that is, the army, rebels, and militias; national actors such as the Sudanese and Chadian governments; and international actors, such as multinational oil companies, the United States, China, and the United Nations. It explains how oil can have disintegrative consequences even when it is still only a rumor about a future possibility.

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Mark C. J. Stoddart and Paula Graham

Since the 1992 cod fishing moratorium, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador has redefined social-environmental relationships with coastal landscapes in pursuit of tourism development. We explore how coastal landscapes are defi ned for tourists through traditional and digital media produced by Newfoundland-based tourism operators and the provincial government. We examine how these discourses are then translated by "outsider" mass media in Canada, the US, and the UK, thereby connecting local environments to global flows of tourism. To understand this process of translation and circulation we analyze television ads, websites, and newspaper articles. Additional insight is provided through interviews with tourism operators and promoters about their media work. Drawing on a co-constructionist approach and tourism mobilities literature, we argue that the post-moratorium shift toward tourism has resulted in the packaging and insertion of Newfoundland landscapes into global tourist/travel discourses in multiple ways that depend on medium of circulation and target audience.

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Susann Baez Ullberg

Flooding has long been a recurrent problem in the Argentinian city of Santa Fe, mainly affecting the poverty-stricken suburban outskirts. In 2003 one of the worst floods ever occurred, which also affected residents in the middle income sectors who had never been flooded before and who reacted with an extraordinary process of commemoration and protest against the government for its lax disaster management. Paradoxically, most other past disastrous floods in the city’s history seem to dwell in the shadows of social oblivion. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the years 2004–2011, this article analyzes how local flood memories are made through daily life practices and places in the suburban outskirts, more than through public commemorations, which has implications for vulnerability and risk.

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Student engagement in the management of accelerated change

Anthropological reflections on ‘Project 2012’ and The Offer

Anselma Gallinat

The prospect of the increase in tuition fees in England from 2012 pulled learning and teaching into the limelight as universities sought to safeguard student recruitment and league table positions in an envisioned new era of increased market competition. As each institution sought to market itself to potential students with a specific learning and teaching ‘offer’, local subject areas faced increasing demands for quality monitoring as well as a host of initiatives and changes to their existing provision. The acceleration of change brought to the fore structures and dynamics that are usually difficult to detect in the routines of everyday life. This article focuses on one U.K. university and explores how the government for accelerated change aimed to reshape learning and teaching practices in preparation for the new times, but in fact served to undermine the visions that had fuelled this change.

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Perspectives from the Ground

Colonial Bureaucratic Violence, Identity, and Transitional Justice in Canada

Jaymelee J. Kim

While traditionally underrepresented in transitional justice studies, anthropological study of culture, ethnography, and processes can contribute valuable insight into colonial bureaucracies and dynamics of power. This article uses an ethnographic approach and a colonial bureaucratic violence theoretical foundation to analyze negative perceptions of transitional justice at the ground level. Participants included facilitators, government officials, nonprofit organizations, and Indigenous community members; research occurred during implementation of transitional justice (2011–2014) for a period of 12 months. Specifically, I argue that the relationship between transitional justice and colonial bureaucratic violence encourages negative views of transitional justice. Instead, ethnographic data first reveals that bureaucratic processes within transitional justice challenge Indigenous identities. Second, Indigenous survivors in British Columbia, Canada, largely view transitional justice on a continuum of colonial bureaucratic violence. Using a colonial bureaucratic violence framework, this article provides insight and nuance into perceptions of transitional justice at the local level.

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Giselle Beiguelman

Odiolândia (Hateland) is a video installation that showcases online comments from videos published on social networks about police actions carried out by the São Paulo municipal and state governments in an area of São Paulo, Brazil, known as Cracolândia (Crackland) between 21 May and 11 June 2017. The first operation took place at five in the morning and involved five hundred armed police officers who allegedly arrested the drug dealers who operate in the region. In practical terms, it resulted in the removal and dispersion of crack users and the demolition of houses. It is important to stress that the area occupied by Cracolândia also coincides with an urban renovation project. It is titled Nova Luz, a public-private redevelopment project for that neighborhood that will displace and evict the poor local population from that area.