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Freeing the ‘Aboriginal Individual’

Deconstructing ‘Development as Freedom’ in Remote Indigenous Australia

Hannah Bulloch and William Fogarty

The idea that freedom should be an explicit goal of development schemes has become popular over recent decades. In this article we consider ways in which the concept is applied to remote Indigenous Australia, such as in Noel Pearson’s invocations of Amartya Sen’s concept of ‘development as freedom’. We draw on the work of governmentality theorists that critically probes the notion of freedom and the ways in which it is tied to its seeming antonym, discipline. We ask what understandings of remote Indigenous Australian life, what ways of thinking about Indigenous futures, may be eclipsed by approaching development aspirations through this (neo-)liberal prism of freedom.

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Raúl Delgado Wise and Humberto Márquez Covarrubias

The relationship between migration and development is a topic of growing interest among international organizations. To varying degrees, those organizations see remittances as an essential tool in the development of migrant-sending, underdeveloped countries. We argue that this view, on which most pertinent public policies are based, misrepresents the notion of development and obscures the root causes of current labor migration. This limited and distorted perspective should be discarded, and the phenomenon should be analyzed in a comprehensive manner that includes strategic/structural, multi-dimensional, and multi-spatial approaches based on the political economy of development. This type of analysis should take into account the following interrelated dimensions: social agents, global context, regional integration, national environment, and local levels.

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The Individual and the Social

A Comparative Study of Quality of Life, Social Quality and Human Development Approaches

David Phillips

The overall aim of this paper is to compare the human development (HD) and social quality (SQ) approaches in the context of quality of life in general and in relation to development in particular. It commences with a broad overview of several perspectives including: prudential values; Sen's capability approach; Berger-Schmitt and Noll's overarching quality of life construct; Phillips' quality of life construct; and Doyal and Gough's theory of Human Needs. en HD and SQ are introduced. HD emphasises well-being, enlarging people's choices, living a long and healthy life, being educated and enjoying a decent standard of living. All this is predicated on the UNDP's insistence that it is people who comprise the real wealth of nations: HD emphasises the well-being of individuals. Two sets of tensions are then discussed: first between the ability to exercise individual freedom and the constraints upon freedom imposed by the provision of compulsory education of children which facilitates that freedom (an institutional threshold to 'the social'); and secondly, the relationship between personhood, social relationships and collective capabilities (an interactive threshold to the social). This is followed by an exploration of whether HD's individualistic orientation is a weakness or whether its explicit incompleteness is a strength. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible ways forward in developing the HD construct, either by incorporating the notion of 'the social' within its framework or else via strategies of using it in partnership with the social quality theory that can both extend it and provide it with a richer theoretical justification.

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Laurent J.G. van der Maesen

This article reviews the development of social quality indicators and the challenges ahead. First, through a review of recent Asian and Australian work carried out on social quality indicators, and the World Bank related work on “social development indicators,” the article argues that social quality indicators research should move beyond the empirical level of particular policy areas. Therefore, it should be guided by a clear methodological perspective regarding the role of indicators as part of a social quality theory (SQT) and their relation to the social quality approach (SQA). Second, the article opens a debate about the rationale behind distinguishing between three different functions of social quality indicators. Indicators should address the change in the conditional factors in daily life, as manifested in its economic, socio-political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions, in order to examine the consequences of general trends and contradictions in (1) societal circumstances, (2) the development (or lack of development) toward sustainability, and (3) the related issue of sustainable urban development. Before 2010 social quality scholars mainly concentrated on the first issue. Recently, however, they are approaching all three issues. It is essential to delve deeper into SQT and the SQA for understanding these three issues separately and integrally. This has implications for the nature of social quality indicators and their comparison to those of other mainstream approaches; the article introduces this agenda of work.

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Decolonizing Development in Diné Bikeyah

Resource Extraction, Anti-Capitalism, and Relational Futures

Melanie K. Yazzie

In this article, I examine the anti-capitalist and antidevelopment politics that Diné resisters espouse in their critiques of resource extraction in the Navajo Nation. I argue that existing anthropological and historical studies about Diné resistance minimize the specifically anti-capitalist character of this resistance by erasing the capitalist underpinnings of development. I draw from Indigenous feminists, Native studies scholars, and Diné land defenders to argue that development in the form of resource extraction is a violent modality of capitalism that seeks to kill Diné life. In response to this death drive, Diné resisters have created a politics of relational life to challenge and oppose development. I examine the historical and material conditions that have given rise to this politics of relational life and suggest its central role in invigorating anticapitalist decolonization struggles.

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Factors in the Development of Spatial Cognition in Boys and Girls

Assessing the Impacts of Biology and Navigational Experience

Mariah G. Schug

Spatial cognition represents one of the best-established sex differences in cognitive science. There is a pervasive tendency for males to outperform females on multiple spatial reasoning tasks. While prenatal hormones may provide a foundation for these differences, childhood experience also plays an important role. This current article examines how biological factors may interact with environmental and cultural factors. Of particular interest is the cross-cultural literature in which children’s naturalistic experiences exploring their environments can be linked to the development of spatial skills. Based on the examined research, children who gain more navigational experience tend to perform better on spatial tasks. Because boys typically have greater opportunities to explore and navigate, this difference in experience may contribute to the observed sex differences in spatial performance.

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Uneven development in the Papua New Guinea highlands

Mining, corporate social responsibility, and the “life market”

Jerry K. Jacka

Over the last 20 years, Papua New Guinea has been at the center of a resource development boom as mining, petroleum, and logging companies extract the rich resources of this tropical Pacific island. As 97 percent of the country is owned by customary groups who correspondingly receive benefits from extraction, resource development has the potential to integrate local communities into the global economy in beneficial ways. Often, though, this is not the case, as small factions of landowners control the bulk of development proceeds. In this article, I examine the development of a coffee growing scheme adjacent to the world-class Porgera Gold Mine, intended to help local people who are marginal to mining benefit streams. Tragically, however, instead of engaging in coffee production, many disenfranchised young men in Porgera prefer to work in the “life market”—a term they use to describe tribal warfare in which groups not receiving benefits attack benefit-receiving groups in the attempt to extort monetary payments. Not only are individuals' lives at stake in the life market, but so too are the economic conditions—coffee and gold mining—that allow the life market's very existence.

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Syed Shahbaz Hussain and Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri

This article analyzes and explores what policies Pakistan adopted to tackle its environmental challenges, effects and outcomes. The research consists of an overview of Pakistan's national environmental policy development and explains the motives and reasons to understand in what context the state formulates these policies. It also makes assessments and evaluations about to what extent policies are successful in achieving their objectives. The study suggests some implications of the Pakistan experience to cope with the global challenges of environmental protection.

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Svetlana A. Sukneva and Anastasiia S. Barashkova

This article presents the particularities of the formation and development of the population in the Russian northeast. It demonstrates that the negative balance of migration and natural growth reduction has become a key reason for the depopulation of the region, and a direct correlation has been established between fertility and mortality and the age structure of the population. The article also shows that the main trends with regard to marriage reflect the trends observed in the course of demographic processes; the deterioration of the marital status among the indigenous peoples of northeastern Russia is attributed to the narrowness of the marriage market.

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Katja Hujo

International migration is driven by development processes and, at the same time, it impacts development through labor market effects, remittance flows, knowledge transfers, social change in households and communities and responses at the policy and institutional levels. Although the development potential of migration is now widely recognized, we still observe that migration, and in particular, the free movement of people and the access of migrants to sociopolitical rights, remains a highly contested and sensitive political issue. This is not only the case with regard to migration from developing countries to industrialized countries in the North, but also for migration at a regional level and within regional integration projects such as common markets or political and monetary unions. This article discusses the linkages between migration, development, social policy and regional integration. The focus is on migration in sub-Saharan Africa, its impact on development and migrants' rights and implications for public policies including new forms of migration governance.

Spanish La migración internacional es impulsada por los procesos de desarrollo y, al mismo tiempo, tiene un impacto en el desarrollo a través de sus efectos en el mercado de trabajo, los flujos de remesas, las transferencias de conocimientos, el cambio social en los hogares y en las comunidades, así como las respuestas a nivel político e institucional. Aunque actualmente el potencial de desarrollo de la migración es ampliamente reconocido, todavía observamos que la migración y, en particular, la libre circulación de personas y el acceso de los migrantes a más derechos sociopolíticos, sigue siendo una cuestión política muy controvertida y sensible. Este no es sólo el caso con respecto a la migración de los países en desarrollo a los países industrializados del Norte, también ocurre en la migración a nivel regional y en los proyectos de integración regional tales como los mercados comunes o uniones políticas y monetarias. Este artículo analiza los vínculos entre la migración, el desarrollo, la política social y la integración regional. La atención se centra en la migración en el África Subsahariana, su impacto sobre el desarrollo y los derechos de los migrantes, así como sus implicaciones en las políticas públicas, incluyendo nuevas formas de gobernanza de la migración.

French La migration internationale est pilotée par les processus de développement et, dans un même temps, impacte sur le développement à travers ses effets sur le marché du travail, les transferts de fonds des migrants, les transferts de connaissances, le changement social dans les ménages et les communautés, ainsi que les réponses qu'elle occasionne au niveau politique et institutionnel. Bien que le potentiel de développement des migrations soit désormais largement reconnu, nous observons encore que la migration, et en particulier la libre circulation des personnes et l'accès des migrants aux droits socio-politiques, reste une question politique très controversée et sensible. Cela ne concerne pas seulement le cas des flux migratoires des pays en développement vers les pays industrialisés du Nord, mais également les flux migratoires générés au niveau régional et dans les contextes d'intégration régionale tels que les marchés communs ou les unions politiques et monétaires. Cet article examine les liens entre la migration, le développement, la politique sociale et l'intégration régionale. L'accent est mis sur la migration en Afrique sub-saharienne, son impact sur le développement et les droits des migrants, ainsi que leurs impacts sur les politiques publiques, y compris les nouvelles formes de gouvernance migratoires.