The literary canon is commonly thought of as ancient, accepted and agreed, and consistent between high and popular cultures. This article demonstrates the falsity of these assumptions, and argues that the canon is always provisional, contingent, iterable and overdetermined by multiple consequences of cultural struggle. Using definitions of canonicity from Harold Bloom, Frank Kermode and Pierre Bourdieu, the article shows how the canon is produced, consumed and reproduced. Picking up on Harold Bloom's use of a poem by Wallace Stevens, the article explores the impact of Arabic adaptations of Shakespeare on canon formation and canonicity.
Shakespeare and the Canon
Harriet Kennedy, Elizabeth (Biz) Nijdam, Logan Labrune and Chris Reyns-Chikuma
Hillary L. Chute, Disaster Drawn: Visual Witness, Comics, and Documentary Form (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016). 376 pp. ISBN: 978-0-6745-0451-6 ($35)
Reginald Rosenfeldt, Comic-Pioniere: Die deutschen Comic-Künstler der 1950er (Bochum: Ch. A. Bachmann, 2015). 294 pp. ISBN: 978-3-941030- 63-3 (€25)
Stephen E. Tabachnick and Esther Bendit Saltzman, eds, Drawn from the Classics: Essays on Graphic Adaptations of Literary Works (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015). 284 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7864-7879-8 ($35)
David Vauclair and Jane Weston Vauclair, De ‘Charlie Hebdo’ à #Charlie: Enjeux, histoire, et perspectives (Paris: Eyrolles, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN: 978-2-2125-6366-5 (€16)
New Patterns in Pet Keeping in Iran
Ahahita Grisoni and Marjan Mashkour
In the perspective of human–animal relationships, considered a social change marker, pet dogs in modern Iranian society constitute a form of acculturation that started under the former regime and perpetuates, if not intensifies, nowadays. At first glance, this acculturation form seems to be directly borrowed from Western patterns, but this article shows the peculiarities of the adaptation models to the Iranian context. This work, based on individual, semistructured interviews with dog owners aims to study the subjective representations of pet dogs and the acquisition and cohabitation material conditions with this animal, within the context of a changing contemporary Iranian society.
petite critique de la raison journalistique
Au terme d’une période, l’entre-deux-guerres, marquée par le rapprochement entre le roman et le journalisme, Sartre propose dans Le sursis à la fois une représentation de la presse durant la semaine de Munich, l’adaptation de certaines techniques du reportage, et une vive critique de la raison journalistique, pendant romanesque et moins optimiste à l’Introduction de Nizan à sa Chronique de septembre. L’incapacité du journalisme à rendre compte, exactement et de façon synchrone, du présent, ménage toute sa place au roman de l’historicité – à condition que le romancier sache se faire quelque peu sorcier et poète.
A Story Illustrated in Signs
The Thousand and One Nights was illustrated under Sani’ ol-Molk’s supervision in 1854–1859 in Iran. In this article, I analyse an illustration of the story of Ŝahrzâd and Šahrbâz, which is the only image in the manuscript that displays the two characters in sexual relation. In analysing the illustration, I address three factors: the handwriting on the top left corner of the illustrated page, the difference between the illustration and the narrative in terms of the timing of the story, and the absence of Donyâzâd from the image. I argue that these factors reveal the painter’s adaptation techniques and his complex interpretation of the scene.
This article examines the practices of mobility and settlement of a community of Syrian Dom moving between Syria and Lebanon. I explore strategies, limitations and opportunities that defined the sphere of Dom social relations in Lebanon. While considering mainly the experience of Dom men, I argue that the scarcity of work, combined with social and political instability, affected their ability to reproduce community and family ties in Lebanon. Within these external constraints, flexibility and adaptation informed both residence patterns and the field of social interactions, which the Dom reconstituted through their cross-border mobility.
Mimi Sheller and Gijs Mom
Th is issue sheds new light on one of the classic concerns of mobility studies: transitions in forms of personal transportation. Mobility transitions are arguably one of the key issues of the twenty-first century, as societies around the world face the pressing questions of climate change mitigation and adaptation. A better understanding of recent and historical transitions not only in vehicle technologies but also in urban forms could be crucial to guiding future transition dynamics. At the same time, a deeper appreciation of historical transitions in transportation can also inform how we think about the present: what methods we use, what factors we take into consideration, and what theoretical perspectives we employ.
Jeffrey M. Zacks
This article is a précis of the book Flicker: Your Brain on Movies (Zacks 2014). Flicker aims to introduce a broad readership to the psychology and neuroscience that underlies their experience in the movie theater. The book covers a range of topics, including emotional experience, adaptation from texts to films, memory and propaganda, movie violence, film editing, and brain stimulation. Cutting across the specific topics are a few broad themes: the evolution of the brain and mind, the role of automatically evoked responses in film viewing, and the role of behavioral and neural plasticity in everyday experience.
Kenneth Branagh and Adapting the 'Shakespearean' Actor
The focus within adaptation studies on embracing intermediality should necessitate exploration not only of other mediums worthy of critical attention such as video games, opera and radio, but also of different adaptive sites: in particular, the body of the actor. More so than with any other author, there is a mode of performance associated with Shakespeare's work that is employed popularly and academically to encompass an individual actor's entire career. This association actively erases an actor's diversity and reduces the performance of their body to a single, definitive function. Actors such as Kenneth Branagh thus remain intimately connected with not only their personal interpretations of Shakespeare, but the playwright in general as a cultural, historical figure. Even when Branagh directs Thor, the Marvel studio comic book adaptation, press reactions and reviews of the film demonstrate the inseparability of his Shakespearean persona from his professional identity as a whole. Of interest, therefore, is the way in which the 'Shakespearean' title is used: what implicit values are ascribed through its usage, what cultural systems perpetuate this attribution, but also what new avenues of critical exploration and what new texts are opened up by acknowledging the actor as the site of adaptive encounter and what traditional concepts of the adaptive text are disturbed.
the tourist, the guidebook, and the motorcar in The Remains of the Day
While debates on tourism have predominantly focused on the role played by literature or the cinema as creating the desire to travel to different sites and sights (Urry 2002), little has been written on what happens when the film adaptation itself is the tourist attraction; when the act of viewing a film is equivalent to a tourist practice. This film, like the other Merchant Ivory productions, is as much a tourist attraction as it is a film narrative. Both of these models of tourism (literary and cinematic) are, however, predicated upon a corporeal mobility of the tourist to a geographical location. This can be supplemented today by a virtual mobility via the cinema screen: a virtual English journey. The Remains of the Day thus brings together these varying discourses of tourism: travel literature; literary tourism; cinematic tourism; and finally the virtual tourism offered by the adaptation being showcased on the cinema screen. The trope of tourism can thus be appropriated to both constructions and deconstructions of myths of Englishness.