This article examines the characteristics of women's Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) poetry of the Holocaust. We will try to answer several questions, such as the subjects addressed by women's poetry, the generational circles to which Sephardi women belong, the explanation for the high percentage of writing among Sephardi women on the Holocaust, and above all, the existence of unique gender characteristics in Judeo-Spanish women's Holocaust poetry.
Judeo-Spanish Women's Poetry on the Holocaust
Chamorro Spiritual Resistance to Colonial Domination
D. S. Farrer and James D. Sellmann
The Chamorro people inhabit an archipelago known as the Mariana Islands located in the western Pacific Ocean. Seventeenth-century Chamorros took ancestral skulls into warfare against the Spanish in the period of the Spanish conquest. The possession of such skulls manifested profound symbolic power. In the aftermath of the war, the survivors converted to Catholicism, amalgamating their ancient religious practices with that faith. Resistance through the centuries against Spanish, Japanese, and American colonial power has been anchored in Chamorro cultural continuity, albeit in an ostensibly fragmented and augmented form. A site of strategic US military bases, Guam now anticipates further military build-up. War magic and warrior religion are lenses that enable the study of colonial domination where the battle lines fault across military, economic, and political frames toward cultural fronts.
The Agency of the Dead at Spanish Mass Grave Exhumations
Jonah S. Rubin
In August 2011, I attended the exhumation of Severiano Clemente González, conducted by the Forum for Memory in the Castilian town of La Toba, Guadalajara. Mr González was one of the over 130,000 civilian victims of the 1936–1939 Spanish Civil War and ensuing Franco dictatorship (1939–1975). Even after Spain’s democratic constitution in 1978, most families could not recover their loved ones, owing to an unofficial ‘Pact of Silence’ whereby major political actors agreed not to legislate, litigate or discuss the still controversial past in the public sphere (Encarnación 2014). Since 2000, however, civil society organisations such as the Forum for Memory and the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARMH) have been leading a series of forensic exhumations – modelled after similar state-led interventions in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe (Ferrándiz 2010; Rubin 2014).
Humanitarian Aid, French Women, and Popular Mobilization during the Front Populaire
The Spanish Civil War stirred an array of humanitarian relief campaigns in France that placed women in the front lines of popular mobilization. As communists, socialists, liberals, antifascists, feminists and pacifists, French women invoked the iconography and language of sexual difference to construct pro-Republican aid appeals as an expression of gendered social concern above party politics. Through exploring the female leaderships, organization, and popular participation in different relief campaigns, this article emphasizes the extent to which Spanish aid efforts were dominated by tensions within the Front Populaire.
Judeo-Spanish Songs Meet the Twenty-First Century
Judith R. Cohen
The Judeo-Spanish song tradition has experienced many changes in recent years as it enters the 'world music' scene. Change, however, can be seen as a constant feature of the many aspects of Judeo-Spanish song and performance practice. Here, various genres are examined, together with some of the changes they have undergone in repertoire, style and context, and a selection of reactions to changes on the part of Sephardi Jews interviewed over several years. To a large extent, the repertoire has moved from the home to public representation, and is performed more by professional artists with no Sephardi background than by people from Sephardi communities, raising questions of appropriation and representation.
This article deals with the Judeo-Spanish musico-poetic repertoire narrating the emigration of Sephardi Jews to Israel. These events find their expression either in original musico-poetic compositions or in melodies borrowed from well known popular songs but with the addition of new words in Judeo-Spanish. The repertoire encompasses various phases of the migration phenomenon including the problem of obtaining official entry to Palestine during the British Mandate, the despair of those left behind in the Sephardi diaspora and the difficulties associated with new trades, both rural and urban. This repertoire of migration songs shows, once again, the creative vitality of the Sephardi Jews.
From Euskara as Counterculture to Euskara as the Classroom Language
Following the Spanish transition to democracy and the subsequent Basque revitalisation, a new label emerged to describe euskaldun berriak, ‘new Basques’. This label distinguished them from traditional speakers of the minority language. This forum piece describes the profiles of two new Basque speakers who represent different generations of new Basque speakerhood, reflecting the rapid changes in the sociolinguistic situation of the Basque Country.
Paul Moody and Gabriel Aarón Macías Zapata
*Second review is in Spanish
T. Winther. (2008). The impact of electricity: Development, desires and dilemmas. New York: Berghahn Books
E. Velásquez, E. Léonard, O. Hoff mann, & M.F. Prêvot-Schapira (Coords.). (2009). El istmo mexicano: una región inasequible. Estado, poderes locales y dinámicas espaciales (siglos XVI-XIX). México: Publicaciones de la Casa Chata-CIESAS - IRD.
João Biehl and Sebastián Ramírez Hernandez
In this theoretically ambitious article, Andrés Guerrero aims to rethink the North’s Master Narrative of liberal citizenship, comparing the administration of Indians in past Ecuador with the administration of illegal immigrants in Spain today “as a sort of distorted reflection.”
A survey of his extensive bibliography reveals that George Mosse wrote very little about the only movement that he ever called his political “Heimat”: antifascism. Nonetheless, in his last years, while writing his memoir Confronting History, he returned to the scenes of his youthful engagement on the left, acknowledging that his “political awakening” was due not merely to his being the refugee scion of the eminent Berlin German-Jewish family whose newspapers were excoriated almost daily by the Nazis. Rather, like many in his generation, at age seventeen George was roused from a sleepy indifference to his studies at the Quaker Bootham School in York-shire by the Spanish Civil War. If his activity on behalf of Spain was still “sporadic” during his last year at Bootham, at Cambridge, which George entered in the fall of 1937, commitment became more intense and eventually, he recalled, “marked my two years as an undergraduate.”