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Fred Morgan

From the Christian perspective the Second Vatican Council's 1965 declaration, Nostra Aetate, is understood as having transformed Jewish–Christian relations. Fifty years on it is appropriate to consider the Jewish reactions. This article summarizes, analyses and compares the early responses to the Vatican Council's efforts by Joseph Soloveitchik and A.J. Heschel. Drawing on the work of Jewish scholars in the interfaith field who see themselves as building on the contributions of these seminal figures, the article highlights the tension between the two approaches championed by Soloveitchik and Heschel and posits a reason for the difference. It also considers the impact of the statement Dabru Emet on the theological status of Jewish–Christian relations as they have developed into the twenty-first century by reviewing the arguments of its supporters such as David Rosen and its critics such as Jon Levenson. The article concludes with a reflection on where we might go from here.

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Smadar Shiffman

Hebrew literature has always been inseparable from the national narrative. Public expectations from the writer have been extremely demanding: a writer must carry the national moral beacon. The effects of this demanding role can be easily recognized in current Hebrew literature. Few are those who ignore the call. Authors may opt for one of three alternatives: Alexander Penn's way, Natan Alterman's way, or Joseph Brenner's way. Penn's way entails direct public involvement embedded in literary works. Alterman's way means the separation between the 'public' and the 'private'. Brenner's way is the complex fusion of the 'public' and the 'private'. This last approach seems to have become the dominant one, with contemporary Hebrew literature and the state of the nation upholding and supporting each other.

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Reconstruction--Fiction--Transfer

Imparting Ethno-aesthetic Knowledge in John Hawkesworth’s Report on Cook’s First Voyage to the South Pacific (1768–1771)

Sebastian Kaufmann

Artistic practices in ethnological knowledge transfer can be found in the wellknown account of James Cook’s first voyage (1768–1771) by John Hawkesworth (Account of the Voyages […] in the Southern Hemisphere, 1773), which shows that such travel accounts are not only vehicles of knowledge transfer but also means of knowledge (re)construction, and at times this process of remolding knowledge extends to a rewriting that includes elements of fiction. Hence, the article will draw on the material assembled by Cook and Joseph Banks in their Endeavour Journals to identify in Hawkesworth’s examples of (ethno-aesthetic) knowledge construction and “invention.” A comparison of the diff erent types of texts is rewarding not least because Hawkesworth’s account strove to present the new knowledge to a broader audience. An identification of Hawkesworth’s departures from his sources facilitates the reading of the act of knowledge transfer as a process of knowledge transformation.

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Marian Aguiar, Tracking Modernity: India's Railway and the Culture of Mobility Vijaya Singh

Caroline S. Hau and Kasian Tejapira, eds., Traveling Nation-makers: Transnational Flows and Movements in the Making of Modern Southeast Asia Nanny Kim

Alan Powell, Northern Voyagers: Australia's Monsoon Coast in Maritime History Joseph Christensen

Joachim Radkau, Die Ära der Ökologie. Eine Weltgeschichte Marcus Popplow

Phillip Vannini, Ferry Tales: Mobility, Place and Time on Canada's West Coast (Maximiliano E. Korstanje)

David Stradling, The Nature of New York: Environmental History of the Empire State Tom McCarthy

Andrea Giuntini, Le meraviglie del mondo. Il sistema internazionale delle comunicazioni nell'Ottocento Giussepina Pellegrino

Annette Schlimm, Ordnungen des Verkehrs. Arbeit an der Moderne-deutsche und britische Verkehrsexpertise im 20. Jahrhundert Gustav Sjöblom

Fernando Esposito, Mythische Moderne. Aviatik, Faschismus und die Sehnsucht nach Ordnung in Deutschland und Italien Kurt Möser

Kurt Möser, Grauzonen der Technikgeschichte. Technikdiskurse Martina Heßler

Richard White, Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America George Revill

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Bacillophobia

Man and Microbes in Dracula, The War of the Worlds, and The Nigger of the “Narcissus”

Jens Lohfert Jørgensen

The tension between specialised and commonsensical notions of microbes in the last decades of the nineteenth century resulted in ‘ bacillophobia'; a marked anxiety amongst the public concerning the threat posed to the individual by germs. This article investigates how the conceptual impact of bacillophobia challenged the cohesion of late Victorian society. It focuses on the role played by bacteria in the negotiation between interiority and exteriority in three novels, all published in 1897: Bram Stoker's Dracula, H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds and Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the “Narcissus”. The analyses of the works emphasise the varying functions of bacteria in them – as allegory in Dracula, as plot device in The War of the Worlds, and as theme in The Nigger of the “Narcissus” – and the varying degrees of ambiguity they are represented with. Bacteriology participated in what the German sociologist Max Weber referred to as the ‘ disenchantment' of the world, which is characteristic of modernity, but the three works all testify to a re-enchanted fear of the possibility that nature might not, after all, be controllable.

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Giuliana Chamedes

The conceptual history of 'economic development' is often told as a US-centered story. The United States, according to the standard account, turned to economic development as a tool in its struggle for global dominance during the Cold War. In line with recent research, this article demonstrates that the post-World War II boom in economic development had European origins as well, and that it originated as a joint response to the Cold War and to the unraveling of European empires. In particular, emphasis is placed on the little-studied contribution of a French Catholic activist who helped redefine economic development in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Dominican Father Louis-Joseph Lebret stood at the head of an influential movement, which conceived of economic development as a way to save both France and Christianity in a moment of crisis for the French empire and for the Roman Catholic Church. In his writings, Lebret bestowed renewed legitimacy on the French 'civilizing mission.' He also revived elements of interwar Catholic thought to argue for the imperative of building a new moral-economic order that was neither communist nor capitalist. Far from a marginal historical actor, this theorist-practitioner was successful in his efforts, and gained followers for his vision of economic development in France, in Vatican City, at the United Nations, and in various former colonized countries.

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Sowing the Seeds of Its Own Destruction

Democracy and Democide in the Weimar Republic and Beyond

Mark Chou

That all democracies have, by their very nature, the potential to destroy themselves is a fact too rarely documented by the acolytes of democracy. Indeed, in the brief decades since Joseph Goebbels, then as Reich Minister of Propaganda, reminded the world that it 'will always remain one of the best jokes of democracy, that it gave its deadly enemies the means by which it was destroyed', democrats have quickly forgotten just how precarious a thing democracy can be. The objective of this article is to entertain the underexplored notion that democratic failure is a possibility that remains very much entrenched within the idea and ideal of democracy itself. Using the breakdown of democracy during the Weimar Republic as a brief illustrative example, the article first describes the process through which a democracy can self-destruct before offering a theoretical explanation of why this is so - one which draws its inspiration from the dual notions of autonomy and tragedy. By doing this, it will hope to have shown just how a democracy can, in the course of being democratic no less, sow the seeds of its own destruction.

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David Evans, Joanne Trevenna, David C. Green, Tina M. Kelleher, Mary Waldren, Andy Croft, George Wotton, Dennis Brown, Shorsha Sullivan, Dimitris Lyacos and Adam Rounce

ILLUMINATIONS: An International Magazine of Contemporary Writing – New Writing from South and Southern Africa. The Rathasker Press; Summer 1998. ISSN 0736–4725. Subs $20; STO £5, Illuminations, Department of English, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424–0001, USA

Gothic Forms of Feminine Fictions. Susanne Becker (Manchester University Press, 1999), ISBN 0–7190–5331–5

In the Shadow of the Holocaust and Other Essays. C. Ponomareff (Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi, 1998), ISBN: 90–420–0562–9

Strange Gourmets: Sophistication, Theory and the Novel. Joseph Litvak (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997), ISBN 0–8223–2016–9; £14.95

Maria Edgeworth’s Irish Writing: Language, History and Politics. Brian Hollingsworth (London: Macmillan, 1997), ISBN 0–333–68166–5.

Working-Class Fiction from Chartism to Trainspotting. Ian Haywood (Plymouth: Northcote House, 1997). Writers and theirWork Series, ISBN 0–7463–0780–2; £8.99

A Preface To Greene. Cedric Watts (Longman, 1997), ISBN 0–582–25019–6; £14.99 (paperback)

The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. John Lucas (Five Leaves Publications, 1997), ISBN 0–907123–17–1 paperback; £11.99

Lives of the Poets. Michael Schmidt (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999), ISBN 0–297–84014–2; £22.00

Jonz. Philip Ramp (Athens, 1997). Translated by Lydia Stephanou. Bilingual edition.

Studies in Classic Australian Fiction. Michael Wilding (Sydney and Nottingham: Sydney Studies in Society and Culture, and Shoestring Press, 1997), ISBN 0–949405–13–2; £12.99

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A Sectarian Rite Gone Mainstream and Cutting-Edge

The Blossoming of Forms of Prayer for Jewish Worship Volume I

Eric L. Friedland

At the outset of the Victorian Era the liturgy of the newly formed British Reform Judaism made its first appearance in Forms of Prayer. It was essentially a rather traditional, yet venturesome prayer book by the largely self-taught charismatic spiritual leader, David W. Marks, for a congregation made up of Anglicised Sephardic and Ashkenazic families, the West London Synagogue. Unique in prayer book reform, the new rite was marked by a deemphasis on the Rabbinic tradition and a move towards an enlightened biblicism. Thus it acquired a bit of a sectarian look. Over time this qualified scriptural reductionism gave way, in the 1920s and 30s, during the days of Rabbis Morris Joseph and Harold Reinhart, to an increased appreciation of Rabbinic law and teaching and, with the influx of Liberal rabbis from Continental Europe after the Second World War, to a recovery of a connectedness with all of world Jewry. A new generation of native-born rabbis (Lionel Blue and Jonathan Magonet) produced volumes of Forms of Prayer from 1977 onward for an entire movement that carried on the Marks legacy and the learned contributions of the postwar German rabbis, while simultaneously going in wholly fresh directions. Bringing the longest continuing Reform siddur into the twenty-first century have been the energetic joint efforts of clergy, scholars and laity under the multifaceted editorial guidance of Jonathan Magonet.

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Marc Saperstein

Joseph Krauskopf immigrated from his native Prussia to the United States at the age of fourteen, and was ordained with the first class of students at the newly established Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. Quickly establishing a reputation for his spellbinding oratory, he became rabbi of Knesseth Israel in Philadelphia, one of the largest Reform congregations in the United States, with a membership composed predominantly of congregants with German background. Although he was a strong supporter of US military action during the Spanish-American War, the First World War caused him considerable anguish, as he remained attached to his roots in German culture throughout his career. In a series of Sunday morning discourses and holiday sermons beginning on Rosh Hashanah 1914, Krauskopf expressed horror at the widespread suffering caused by the war, strongly supported the initial US policy of neutrality, and vehemently criticized expressions of growing support for the Entente Cordiale. While upholding the US war effort after America's entry into combat, as the end drew near he continued to excoriate policies that would humiliate and impoverish Germany, with prescient warnings of future disasters.