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Victor Jeleniewski Seidler

Drawing on her poetry as well as her theology, this article explores Sheila Shulman’s multiple engagements with feminisms that have transformed patriarchal traditions within Judaism and opened new spaces to engage the integrity of differences. Thinking across boundaries and developing practices of ‘reading whole’, she showed ways of engaging traditional texts that call upon us to be honest and present to ourselves as we shape new forms of community. As a teacher she inspired many to read attentively and with love and to frame questions that mattered to the world.

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Hanna Herzog

The most notable indication that research and discussion regarding gender and feminism are flourishing is the increase in the number of books in these fields and the fact that bookstores are allocating a separate section for them. For years, publishing in Hebrew on the issue of gender was very limited, but around the end of the 1980s it began to expand. In fact, from the turn of the century it has become difficult to keep up with all the literature being published in Hebrew.

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Hanna Herzog

The essay follows the development of gender studies in Israel. It argues that from an invisible social category in the early stages of social research, women as a social category has been continuously viewed with different meanings through different epistemological lenses. A major shift has taken place from gender to genders, from 'women' as a social category to 'women' as fragmented, variegated, and multi-dimensional entities. This transition from gender to genders raises a dilemma, for feminism as theory and as a social movement, of what kind of feminist politics, if any at all, is possible or needed.

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Women and Gender in Europe from 1939 to the Present

Challenging and Reassessing the Narrative

Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

Joanna Regulska and Bonnie G. Smith, eds., Women and Gender in Postwar Europe: From Cold War to European Union, London and New York: Routledge, 2012, 243 pp., $44.95 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-41569-500-8.

Maren Röger and Ruth Leiserowitz, eds., Woman and Men at War: A Gender Perspective on World War II and Its Aft ermath in Central and Eastern Europe, Osnabrück: fibre Verlag, 2012, 342 pp., $35 (paperback), ISBN: 978-3-93840-083-8.

Jennifer Suchland, Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Traffi cking, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015, xiii + 260 pp., $24.95 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-8223-5961-6.

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For Women's Rights, Church, and Fatherland

The Lithuanian Catholic Women's Organisation, 1908-1940

Indrė Karčiauskaitė

This article examines the history of the Lietuviu Katalikiu Moteru Draugija (LKMD, Lithuanian Catholic Women's Organisation) from its foundation in 1908 to its disbandment under Soviet occupation in 1940. Special attention is paid to the LKMD's changing relationship with the Catholic clergy and Lithuanian nationalism. Exploring which type of feminism the LKMD represented, the article focuses on attitudes of the LKMD leadership towards women's rights, participation in society, and paid employment. The beginning of the 1920s is shown to have been a turning point. At that time many educated women became active in order to enshrine women's rights in the statutes of the newly independent Lithuanian State. Several of them joined the LKMD, subsequently succeeding in reducing the clergy's influence on the organisation's central board. The LKMD, it turns out, was a good example of a women's organisation espousing relational feminism (Karen Offen's term), insisting on women's participation in society as being distinct from men's, particularly in relation to women's role as mothers, while taking a stand for equality between men and women, especially with respect to judicial issues.

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Marianna Muravyeva

Olga Khazbulatova and Natalia Gafizova. Zhenskoe Dvizhenie v Rossiji (Vtoraja Polovina XIX—Nachalo XX veka) (The women’s movement in Russia [second half of the nineteenth, early twentieth century]), Ivanovo: Izdatel’stvo Ivanovo, 2003, 256 pp. ISBN 5-85229-147-1

Tatiana Mel’nikova. Zhenskoe Dvizhenie v Rossiji: Traditsiji i Innovatsiji (The women’s movement in Russia: Traditions and innovations), Moskva: Mysl’, 2000, 180 pp. ISBN 5-244-00968-0

Natalia Pushkareva. Russkaja Zhenschina: Istorija i Sovremennost’. Dva veka Izuchenija ‘Zhenskoj Temy‘ Russkoj i Zarubezhnoj Naukoj. 1800–2000. Materialy k Bibliografii (The Russian woman: history and present: Two centuries of studying ‘women’s theme’ by Russian and Western science. 1800–2000. With bibliography), Moskva: Nauchno- Izdatel’skij Tsentr ‘Ladomir’, 2002, 526 pp. ISBN 5-86218-397-3

Irina Yukina. Istorija Zhenschin v Rossiji. Zhenskoe Dvizhenie i Feminism v 1850–1920-e gg. Materialy k Bibliografiji (History of women in Russia: The women’s movement and feminism, 1850–1920. With bibliography), St. Petersburg: Aleteija, 2003, 234 pp. ISBN 5-89329-615-X

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Introduction

Cinemas of Boyhood, Part I

Timothy Shary

These are ripe times to study boyhood in cinema. Even though male characters have undoubtedly dominated cinema roles from the start, boys’ stories have not been consistently produced or appreciated. Since the publication of Where the Boys Are: Cinemas of Masculinity and Youth, a collection edited by Murray Pomerance and Frances Gateward in 2005, there has been increasing academic interest in boyhood representation through movies, as demonstrated by the articles collected here. This interest follows the expansive concerns of pop psychology texts at the turn of the century that took up the political and emotional consequences of boys’ behavior, such as Real Boys: Rescuing Our Sons from the Myths of Boyhood by William Pollack (1999), Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson (2000), and The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism is Harming Our Young Men by Christina Hoff Sommers (2001).As is evident in their titles, this research joined the chorus of a prevailing masculinity in crisis theme that has permeated gender studies in recent years: boys have been troubled by the pressures of patriarchy, the demands of feminism, and the culture of capitalism, and thus are in need of rescue and protection from these influences.

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Feminist Anthropology Anew

Motherhood and HIV/AIDS as Sites of Action

Pamela J. Downe

Ongoing discussions about feminist anthropology as an active and relevant sub-discipline largely rely on historical comparisons that pit the political fervour of the past against what is deemed to be the less defined and increasingly disengaged feminist anthropology of today. In this paper, I argue that the prevailing tone of pessimism surrounding feminist anthropology should be met with a critical response that: (1) situates the current characterization of the sub-discipline within broader debates between second- and third-wave feminism; and (2) considers the ways in which the supposed incongruity between theories of deconstruction and political engagement undermines the sub-discipline's strengths. Throughout this discussion, I consider what an ethnographic study of motherhood in the context of HIV/AIDS can offer as we take stock of feminist anthropology's current potential and future possibility.

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‘Fight Abortion, Not Women’

The Moral Economy Underlying Russian Feminist Advocacy

Michele Rivkin-Fish

This article traces the conceptual emergence and development of feminist-oriented abortion politics in urban Russia between 2011 and 2015. Examined as an example of local adaptions of global reproductive rights movements, Russians’ advocacy for abortion access reflects commitments and tensions characterising post-Soviet feminism. Specifically, I show how calls to preserve women’s access to legal abortion have drawn on both socialist-inspired ideals of state support for families and liberal-oriented ideas of individual autonomy. Attention to the logics underlying abortion activists’ rhetoric reveals the specific historical sensibilities and shifting cultural values at stake in the ways progressive Russian activists construe justice. The analytic concept of ‘moral economy’ brings into relief how their advocacy evokes ideal visions of reciprocal obligations and uncertainties in both state-citizen relations and intimate relations. I argue that contextualised analyses of local feminist abortion politics may enrich global debates for reproductive rights and justice.

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Sarah E. Summers

This article explores the connections between West German autonomous women's movement and the green movement from inception of the green movement in the 1970s until its institutionalization with the Green Party in the 1980s. I argue that understanding the role of feminism in the movement and vice versa requires scholars to rethink the autonomous strategies of the New Women's Movement. In doing so, I contend that autonomous feminists understood the wider implications of the green movement beyond ecological preservation, thus aiding in the transition to political party. Entangling the two movements also highlights the limits of gender equality in the Green Party as it implemented the quota system in the 1980s, and offers lessons for the potential future success of gender parity in German politics.