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Introduction

Cinemas of Boyhood, Part I

Timothy Shary

These are ripe times to study boyhood in cinema. Even though male characters have undoubtedly dominated cinema roles from the start, boys’ stories have not been consistently produced or appreciated. Since the publication of Where the Boys Are: Cinemas of Masculinity and Youth, a collection edited by Murray Pomerance and Frances Gateward in 2005, there has been increasing academic interest in boyhood representation through movies, as demonstrated by the articles collected here. This interest follows the expansive concerns of pop psychology texts at the turn of the century that took up the political and emotional consequences of boys’ behavior, such as Real Boys: Rescuing Our Sons from the Myths of Boyhood by William Pollack (1999), Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson (2000), and The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism is Harming Our Young Men by Christina Hoff Sommers (2001).As is evident in their titles, this research joined the chorus of a prevailing masculinity in crisis theme that has permeated gender studies in recent years: boys have been troubled by the pressures of patriarchy, the demands of feminism, and the culture of capitalism, and thus are in need of rescue and protection from these influences.

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Matthew Zarnowiecki

Shakespeare’s sonnets have been subject to myriad creative and critical responses from the first instances of their partial publication in 1599 (two sonnets in The Passionate Pilgrime), in 1609 (the first edition of Shakespeares Sonnets, which included A Lover’s Complaint), and in 1640 (the first edition of John Benson’s Poems. VVritten By Wil. Shakespeare. Gent.). Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, editors and commentators felt comfortable manipulating the order of sonnets as printed in the 1609 quarto, often in order to arrive at a presumed authorial intention, or to demonstrate more clearly the ways in which the sonnets tell the story of Shakespeare’s life and times. The late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have seen a different, but related phenomenon: a set of creative reimaginings, adaptations, and appropriations that attempt not only to bring Shakespeare’s sonnets into new contexts, but also to respond to the sonnets while still remaining in their purview. This article explores these responses, especially instances in which poets, directors, dramatists, and film-makers seem to want to create something of their own but still remain faithful to Shakespeare in one way or another. My own interest is in exploring that dual desire, and it seems only fair, after exploring several versions of it, to offer one of my own.

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Christian Promitzer, Eleni Fournaraki, Zorica Bečanović-Nikolić, Susanne Kröhnert-Othman, Olga Todorova, Marian J. Rubchak, Velisalva Petrova, Rebecca Nagel, Philippa Hetherington, Timothy Ashplant, Susan Zimmermann, Ana Luleva and Natalia Novikova

Svetla Baloutzova, Demography and Nation. Social Legislation and Population Policy in Bulgaria, 1918–1944, Budapest and New York: Central European University Press (Central European University Press Studies in the History of Medicine, vol. 1), 296 pp., $45.00/ €39.95/£35.00 (hb), ISBN 978-963-9776-66-1.

Katerina I. Dalakoura, I ekpaideusi ton gunaikon stis hellenikes koinotetes tis Othomanikis autokratorias (19os aionas–1922). Koinonikopoiesi sta protipa tis patriarchias kai tou ethnikismou (Women’s education in the Greek communities of the Ottoman Empire (19th century– 1922). Socialization according to the models of patriarchy and nationalism), Athens: Gutenberg, 2008, 450 pp., € 33.50 (pb), ISBN 978-960-01-1173-6.

Biljana Dojčinović, Susreti u tami. Uvod u čitanje Virdžinije Vulf (Encounters in the dark. An introduction to reading Virginia Woolf), Belgrade: Službeni glasnik, 2011, 136 pp., €5 (pb), ISBN 978-86-519-0814-2.

Umut Erel, Migrant Women Transforming Citizenship: Life-Stories from Britain and Germany, Farnham: Ashgate, 2009, 220 pp., £55, ISBN 978- 0-7546-7494-8 .

Haim Gerber, State and Society in the Ottoman Empire (Variorum Collected Studies Series, 944), Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2010, pp. xvi + 296, £72.00 (hb), ISBN 978-0-7546-6985-2.

Oksana Kis’, Zhinka v tradytsiinii Ukraïnskii kul’turi (Woman in traditional Ukrainian culture), L’viv, Ukraine: National Academy of Ukraine, 2008, 271 pp., ISBN 978-966-02-5072-7.

Ivan Elenkov and Daniela Koleva, eds., Detstvoto pri sotsializma: Politicheski, institutsionalni i biografichni perspectivi (Childhood under socialism: Political, institutional and biographical perspectives), Sofia: Center for Advanced Studies-Sofia/Riva, 2010, 208 pp., 11,40 lv, ISBN 978-954-320-281-2.

Theodore Koulouris, Hellenism and Loss in the Work of Virginia Woolf, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2011, 242 pp., US$114.95 (hb), ISBN 978-1-4094-0445-3.

Sharon A. Kowalsky, Deviant Women: Female Crime and Criminology in Revolutionary Russia, 1880–1930, DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009, 330 pp., US$42.00 (hb), ISBN 978-08-758-0406-4.

Dalia Leinarte, Adopting and Remembering Soviet Reality: Life Stories of Lithuanian Women, 1945–1970, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2010, 234 pp., ISBN 978-90-420-3062-6.

Heidi Niederkofler, Maria Mesner, Johanna Zechner, eds., Frauentag! Erfindung und Karriere einer Tradition (Women’s Day! Invention and career of a tradition) (= Kataloge des Österreichischen Museums für Volkskunde, vol. 93), Vienna: Löcker Verlag, 2011, 344 pp., €29.80 (pb), ISBN 978-3-85409-585-9.

Kristina Popova, Marijana Piskova, Margareth Lanzinger, Nikola Langreiter, and Petar Vodenicharov, eds., Women and Minorities Ar- chives: Ways of Archiving, Sofia and Vienna: SEMARSh, 2009, 291 pp., ISBN 978-954-9590-03-6.

Natalia Pushkareva, Gendernaia teoriia i istoricheskoe znanie (Gender theory and historical knowledge), St. Petersburg: Aletheia, 2007, 496 pp., ISBN 978-5-91419-007-8.

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Guest Editorial

Queering Girlhood

Barbara Jane Brickman

In their new groundbreaking study reviewed in this special issue, The Trans Generation: How Trans Kids (and Their Parents) are Creating a Gender Revolution (2018), sociologist Ann Travers details the experiences of transgender children in the US and Canada, some as young as four years of age, who participated in research interviews over a five-year period. Establishing a unique picture of what it means to grow up as a trans child, Travers offers numerous examples of daily life and challenges for children like, for example, Martine and Esme, both of whom sought to determine their own gender at an early age: Martine and her family recount how at the age of seven she responded to her upcoming appointment at a gender clinic by asking if the doctor would have “the machine where you walk in as a boy and walk out as a girl,” while Esme’s story begins in preschool and leads to the care of a “trans-affirmative doctor” (168) from the age of six and the promise of hormone blockers and estrogen at the onset of puberty. Although Travers’s work is devoted to and advocates for trans children as a whole, its implications for our understanding of and research into girls and girlhood cannot be understated. What does it mean to “walk out” of that machine in the doctor’s office “as a girl?” What happens when you displace the seemingly monumental onset of puberty from its previous biological imperatives and reproductive futures? How might feminist work on girlhoods, which has sought to challenge sexual and gender binaries for so long, approach an encounter with what Travers calls “binary-conforming” or “binary-identifying” (169) trans girls or with the transgender boys in their study who, at first, respond to the conforming pressures of adolescence very similarly to cisgender girls who will not ultimately transition away from a female identity?

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Dismantling the Monolith

Southern Places – Past, Present, and Future

Barbara Ladd

Most of us in southern literary studies have taken for granted the idea that southern literature is grounded in a ‘sense of place’, but questions about the meaning and significance of that sense of place have been troubling, particularly when linked in U.S. literature (as seems always to be the case) with the idea of ‘regionalism’. Is a literature ‘grounded in place’ necessarily a ‘regional’ literature? Many – including Eudora Welty – would say that it is not: ‘“Regional” is an outsider’s term’, she writes, which ‘has no meaning for the insider who is doing the writing, because as far as he knows he is simply writing about life …’ Nevertheless, for Welty, ‘Location [italics mine] is the ground conductor of all the currents of emotion and belief and moral conviction that charge out from the story in its course’.1 ‘Place’, in other words, is a matter of ‘location’, of ‘situation’, a ‘conductor’ of the currents that move and move through a literary text; and unlike ‘region’ as it has usually been understood, ‘place’ and ‘location’ are subjective, experiential, insiders’ terms. If this is so, why has the sense of place been so closely linked with regionalism in U.S. literary history? It is especially odd when one considers that the sense of place suggests something that ‘centres’ whereas regionalism evokes ideas of the periphery, so that the literatures of the periphery are often said to be ‘centred’ in that famous ‘sense of place’, whereas those literatures of the ‘centre’ are presumably unplaced. The answer probably has something to do with the fact that Americans imagine change and possibility in terms of a flight from, or liberation from, place. This has been one very powerful version of the American Dream. But change and possibility, those forces that move narrative, might be more accurately imagined as a transfiguration of – rather than as a flight or liberation from – place.

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Colin Davis

The dead will remain with us, Sartre remarks at the end of Les Mots, for as long as humanity roams the earth. The dead are never quite dead; they survive in what Sartre, in L'Etre et le néant, calls 'la vie morte' (dead life). In Huis clos, Sartre envisages an afterlife in which, although they can no longer act, the dead continue to agonize over the meaning of their lives and their now irrevocable actions. Sartre's script of Les Jeux sont faits, filmed by Jean Delannoy and shown at the Cannes Film Festival in 1947, goes a step further. It depicts two dead people given the chance to return to earth in the pursuit of love and, at the same time, the opportunity to rectify their earlier mistakes, to change the meaning of their lives by intervening more effectively in their worlds. Despite its supernatural story line, the stakes of Les Jeux sont faits are recognizably Sartrean. The film serves as an opportunity to probe the themes of freedom, responsibility, choice, the role of the individual agent in history, the self's opacity to itself, the conflict endemic in the human condition and the ways in which external circumstances make a mockery of our endeavours. It asks the question, if we were given a second chance, could we revisit the scenes of our failures and transform them into successes? Could we learn from our mistakes and lucidly remodel the world in the form of our desires? Or are we condemned only to fail again, to make the same mistakes twice over?

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Stacy M. K. George

the potential to shape global political culture in return. The ideological variation within the Tea Party is much greater than was originally conveyed in the early stages of its life cycle, when studies suggested that the party might represent an

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Jack Hunter, Annelin Eriksen, Jon Mitchell, Mattijs van de Port, Magnus Course, Nicolás Panotto, Ruth Barcan, David M. R. Orr, Girish Daswani, Piergiorgio Di Giminiani, Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen, Sofía Ugarte, Ryan J. Cook, Bettina E. Schmidt and Mylene Mizrahi

uncomfortably aware of what a strange activity we anthropologists are engaged in, trying to pin down the movement of religious life and being in our writings. There are also important differences to note. Sánchez’s work (which does not appear in Canals

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Portrait

Eileen Barker

Linda Woodhead, James T. Richardson, Martyn Percy, Catherine Wessinger and Eileen Barker

very different approach. I will not pretend that it changed my life the first time I read it, but I have gone back to it time and again, and it continues to illuminate and inspire. The Article The thrust of Barker’s article is to propel the study of

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The Uncanniness of Missionary Others

A Discursive Analysis of a Century of Anthropological Writings on Missionary Ethnographers

Travis Warren Cooper

pasts intruding on traditional ways of life. The Methodist mission to the South African Tswana, in other words, is much of the story. To be sure, anthropologists study marginalized, indigenous peoples, 14 but they also document those European tribal