The Santa Claus figure, the Christmas tree and decorations that are associated with this Christian holiday have been adopted by liberal consumers in Turkey, a Muslim country. These Turks envisage Santa Claus, in his trademark red suit, as a gift bearer on the occasion of New Year's Eve. This societal development has consolidated the cultural distance not only between the upper and lower classes but also between the established middle class and the flourishing, new conservative middle class. In protest, the religiously conservative have produced sombre 'alternative gatherings' to remind Turks of their Muslim heritage.
How can humor illustrate critical trends related to social, economic, and ecological sustainability? This article is based on a case study that focused on the film Rare Exports: A Christmas Tale (2010) and two related short films—Rare Exports Inc. (2003) and Rare Exports: Official Safety Instructions (2005). These fantasy films employ irony and dark humor that reverse the popular impressions related to Santa Claus and his elves and, more generally, exotic northern nature and culture. By representing the gentle Santa Claus as a savage hybrid creature brutally punishing those not adhering to certain social norms, these films break several conventional dichotomies between good and evil, human and animal, and society and nature. The use of dark humor and irony may compromise attempts to create public understanding based on best available scientific knowledge, but it also opens up complementary and potentially fruitful ways to discuss sustainability issues. Irony provides opportunities to identify and criticize unsustainable trends and to challenge and disclose dichotomies that may otherwise remain unnoticed.
just not the case when we respond to fictional characters and events. Once I know that Santa Claus does not exist, I cannot (at least, not coherently) hope that he brings me gifts. My own view is that emotions in different contexts are subject to
Girls’ Voices and Civic Engagement in Student Journalism
Piotr S. Bobkowski and Genelle I. Belmas
flag, “southern pride” 1 4 Teachers acting inappropriately, discip. action 2 3 Gender, gender inequality, feminism, sexism 1 3 Vandalism 2 3 Poor athletic performance 2 3 School policies 2 3 Private/personal issues 2 3 Policy on Santa Claus, Halloween
villains by sending the body of the bad guy he killed down to the other villains, decorated with a Santa Claus inscription, so the aggression by taunting is framed by PLAYING (see Figure 2 ). Then John flees and hides . Soon the film introduces a new
Klaus Berghahn, Russell Dalton, Jason Verber, Robert Tobin, Beverly Crawford, and Jeffrey Luppes
“Friday”, and to finding out there is no Santa Claus. The spoofs use footage of a tirade from the 2004 film Downfall —the German film by Oliver Hirschbiegel that focused on Hitler’s last days in power before his suicide and the collapse of the Nazi regime
Children’s Literature in Communist Romania
have. … Reading these stories will help you understand the life about you. … You will not only be part of history, but you will become makers of history” ( Mishler 2003: 30 ). 5 The Communist version of Santa Claus, who used to bring presents not on