This article places race at the analytical center of a comparative urban transport history of early twentieth-century Singapore and Manila. It focuses on motorization, as seen in the influx and eventual dominance of streetcars and automobiles. The British and the American colonizers turned these Western-made vehicles into symbols of colonial modernity, defined in racialized terms. They regarded the different “Asiatics” as naturally ill-equipped to handle streetcars and automobiles, and when the colonized proved them wrong, the colonizers framed these acts using the racialist discourse of “potentiality.” Nevertheless, the native transport laborers appropriated motorized vehicles in ways that the colonizers did not imagine. Machines presented the natives a world of knowledge, which was maximized for financial gain. The acquisition of various forms of knowledge thus revealed a paradox of the civilizing mission: the colonizers exposed natives to the world of civilized knowledge, but the acquisition of this knowledge disrupted colonial discipline.
“Asian” Laborers and “Western” Urban Transportation in Colonial Manila and Singapore
Michael D. Pante
Animals and Human Knowledge
matched those of Asian elephants. Abraham Dee Bartlett, the superintendent of the London Zoo, was an enthusiastic supporter of taming African elephants. 33 The creation of animal handlers within the native population no doubt was another civilizing
LA Gang Tours and the White Control of Mobility
Sarah Sharma and Armonds R. Towns
short hours of freedom. It could always be like this . The civilizing missions of colonizers is well-documented and we can now add the LA Gang Tour to this list of historical pillaging, but we must still return to what the tours have produced for the