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“Clear and Present Danger”

The Legacy of the 1917 Espionage Act in the United States

Petra DeWitt

control over the American economy and the daily lives of ordinary citizens as never before, all in the name of national security and achieving victory. 7 States, counties, and municipalities preferred to deal with opponents to war in their own way by, for

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Joanna Bourke

systematic observation and experiment as a means to test predictions from hypotheses while reducing or eliminating (i.e. controlling) the effects of perceived and possible biases on results and conclusions. So what it means to be self-consciously political

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Free from State Violence or Free to Comply?

A Revised Typology of Coercion and Repression in Liberal Democracies

Barbora Capinska

force or threat of force in general and ‘repression’ when the state intends to control or eliminate political adversaries ( Francisco 1995: 269 ; Pion-Berlin 1986: 50) . Some authors use only one term ( Francisco 1996) , while others use both terms

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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

, Russia’s earliest criminal law codes acknowledge prosecutions and punishment up to execution for murder, arson, and other major crimes as well as for political and religious crimes. As the state began to amass bureaucratic control in the sixteenth century

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Carl Strikwerda

that the global economy was bound up and supported by imperialism, that is, European control of non-European areas. Yet Lenin’s own statistics showed that most European investment and trade had little to do with imperialism—Britain’s in Argentina and

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Christina Oesterheld

much of Urdu fiction, thus providing an emotional outlet for repressed feelings and longings. Toward the Reformed Family: Control and Regulation of Emotions Reformist discourse included reflections on a new kind of pedagogy. Master Ram Chandra (1821

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Richard S. Fogarty

During the First World War, more than 500,000 colonial subjects served in the French Army. As these men, known as troupes indigenes, helped defend France from invasion, many of them had sexual and romantic relationships with French women. Such intimate contacts across the color line transgressed strict boundaries that separated the non-white colonized from white colonizers, boundaries that helped construct and sustain colonial rule. Thus these interracial relationships produced acute anxieties in the minds of French officials, who worried that their failure to control the passions and desires of colonial men and metropolitan women would ultimately undermine the French empire.

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Deliberative Democracy

Bringing the System Back In

Michael J. Jensen

The current crisis of democracy today is a crisis in the steering capacities of political systems as conventional representative institutions are seen as increasingly unresponsive. This has engendered a crisis of legitimacy as governing processes that affect daily life are seen as increasingly out of reach for citizens who find themselves with little or no influence over government administration, and increasingly globalized flows of markets and communication that belie the control of sovereign borders. The return to deliberative democracy as a response to the crisis has turned toward systems thinking within deliberation. Although this literature has primarily retained its normative language, approaching the crisis of democracy in terms of its empirical steering capacities is necessary to connect deliberation with its democratic aspirations. In addition to the language of steering capacities, these elements include an empirically-grounded account of the operation of power and authority as well the role of rhetoric as central rather than operating in the shadow of deliberation.

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A Specter Is Haunting Germany--the French Specter of Milieu

On the Nomadicity and Nationality of Cultural Vocabularies

Wolf Feuerhahn

Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, and Isabelle Stengers fought against a state-controlled form of science and saw “nomadic science/concepts” as a way to escape from it. The transnational history of the term milieu marks a good opportunity to contribute to another theory of nomadic vocabularies. Traveling from France to Germany, the word milieu came to be identified as a French theory. Milieu was seen as an expression of determinism, of the connection between the rise of the natural sciences and the rise of socialism, and it deterred the majority of German academics. Umwelt was thus coined as an “antimilieu” expression. This article defends a “transnational historical semantic” against the Koselleckian history of concepts and its a priori distinctions between words and concepts. Instead of taking its nature for granted, a transnational historical semantic investigation should analyze the terminological and national status given to the objects of investigation by the term's users.

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Little Phil

Changing the Relationship between Philanthropy and Democracy?

Joshua Murchie and Jean-Paul Gagnon

This Practitioner’s Note considers the disruptive function of Little Phil, a mobile app that seeks to democratize philanthropic giving. Although many of the cultural aspects of philanthropy – such as increased control over donation, tracking the impact of one’s giving, and building interpersonal relationships with receivers – can be opened to any person with an app-hosting device and internet access, it cannot supplant the role of big philanthropy and solve Rob Reich’s problem: how to domesticate private wealth so that it serves democratic purposes? Little Phil’s disruption has in concept gotten us halfway to legitimizing philanthropy. Perhaps the uptake of citizens’ panels by large philanthropic foundations will cover the remaining distance.