On 21 December 2007, the German-Polish border became a "Schengen" border. Passport controls and other limitations to the movement of people and goods were abolished, removing one more obstacle to European and, perhaps, German-Polish integration. Several years earlier, Poland introduced territorial and administrative changes that moved it closer institutionally to western European states. Forty-nine subnational administrative units were replaced by sixteen self-governing voivodships. This article explores the implications of this new institutional context for German-Polish border relations. It finds that, despite the expansion of the opportunity structure for greater German-Polish cross-border cooperation, interaction still tends to be among elites. The development of linkages at the societal level lags behind for several reasons, including lingering institutional impediments and cultural differences, but also the failings of political leadership.
An open reflection on leadership, solidarity, and contemporary regional integration
Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda
border integration processes, which are driven by local elites. She proposes an ethical framework for cross-border governance based on values that promote citizen-based and citizen-focused cross-border relations. The final academic article in this issue
-to-state relations. Local actors vary in their commitment to cross-border relations, but it is clear that there is no push from national actors to resolve some of the longstanding problems in border regions. Consequently, the perspective of this article is to analyze