This article uses the theory of recognition to analyze sectarian conflicts in Iraq. After describing the sectarian and historical background of contemporary Iraqi politics, the article critiques the implementation of consociationalism and policies influenced by liberal multiculturalism in deeply divided societies. It argues that these policies lead to a dangerous reification of identities. The article argues that a progressive implementation of deliberative democracy practices could improve identity-related issues in Iraq and explains how democratic practices are legitimized by the most influential Islamic religious figure in Iraq.
From Consociationalism to Deliberation?
Rights , ed. Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi . Oxford : Oxford University Press . O’Flynn , Ian . 2006 . Deliberative Democracy in Divided Societies . New York : Palgrave MacMillan . Pedrini , Seraina , André Bächtiger , and Marco
reasons” ( Raz 1999: 67 ). 5 In “deeply divided societies” multiple lines of potential conflict can possibly neutralize conflict. Israeli and Turkish politics offer cases in which religious partisans’ political positions differ from their party
Wolfgang Merkel and Jean-Paul Gagnon
Row . Dryzek , John . 2005 . “ Deliberative Democracy in Divided Societies: Alternatives to Agonism and Analgesia .” Political Theory 33 ( 2 ): 218 – 242 . Easton , David . 1957 . “ An Approach to the Analysis of Political Systems .” World
Carl Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on a Key Question in Democratic Theory
the Americas, loud calls are going up that the government will not implement the “will of the people”—which is now practically a mantra of populist parties or movements that themselves push ethnonationalist and racist objectives that divide society and