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Transnational Cultural Propaganda

French Cultural Policies in Britain during the Second World War

Charlotte Faucher

The Second World War challenged the well-established circulation of cultural practices between France and Britain. But it also gave individuals, communities, states, and aspiring governments opportunities to invent new forms of international cultural promotion that straddled the national boundaries that the war had disrupted. Although London became the capital city of the main external Resistance movement Free France, the latter struggled to establish its cultural agenda in Britain, owing, on the one hand, to the British Council’s control over French cultural policies and, on the other hand, to the activities of anti-Gaullist Resistance fighters based in London who ascribed different purposes to French arts. While the British Council and a few French individuals worked towards prolonging French cultural policies that had been in place since the interwar period, Free French promoted rather conservative and traditional images of France so as to reclaim French culture in the name of the Resistance.

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Benoît Glaude

The forms taken up by French comics in the Offenstadt brothers' wartime weeklies echo other representations of the Great War produced behind the front lines, including the music hall, popular imagery and illustrated newspapers. The Offenstadt brothers' picture stories, which staged comic operas starring soldiers and conformed to French propaganda instructions, were a hit with soldiers and civilians (including children), aside from some offended Catholic critics. This essay contextualises their success, focusing on the reception of the comics, particularly those by Louis Forton.

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Olivier Wieviorka

*The full text version of this article is in French

English Abstract:

Historians generally consider resistance in Europe as a national phenomenon. This vision is certainly accurate, but forgets one important datum: the Allies have played a decisive part in European resistance, by recognizing (or not) governments in exile, by authorizing (or not) the free access to the BBC, and by using their secret services (mainly the Special Operations Executive, SOE, and the Office of Strategic Services, OSS). This article tries to show how this action has shaped resistance in Western Europe, and given to the Anglo-Americans a leading part in clandestine action—even if national powers, in one way or another, have resisted this hegemony.

French Abstract:

La résistance en Europe a le plus souvent été considérée comme un combat national, tant par les hommes et les femmes qui y ont participé que par les historiens qui ont, par la suite, tenté de l’analyser. Sans contester ce schéma, il convient sans doute de l’enrichir, en admettant que l’intervention des Britanniques, puis des Américains, a contribué à européaniser la résistance. En la pliant à un modèle organisationnel unique tout d’abord ; en imposant des structures de commandement et une stratégie identiques ensuite ; en légitimant les pouvoirs en exil enfin. Ces interventions ont au total amené à une homogénéisation de l’armée des ombres sur le Vieux Continent, sans que les résistances nationales n’aliènent, pour autant, leur identité propre.

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Borderland of the Mind

The Free City of Danzig and the Sovereignty Question

Elizabeth M. Clark

to issue publications for consumption by the general public, on Danzig territory itself. The c.a. 1927 pamphlet Wer Kennt Danzig ?/ How to see Danzig , published by Werner-Rades Hessenlanddruck Stettin, functioned as both propaganda and tourist

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Michael Scholz

The publication of comics from the 1950s onwards in East Germany started as a defensive reaction against Western comics. It did not take long for the medium to be used as an instrument for socialist propaganda. This was especially the case with the historical-political comics in the magazine Atze. This article provides an overview of the representation of the First World War and the German Revolution of 1918–1919 in Atze. It shows that Atze's stories closely followed the historical perspective prescribed by the communist party as well as the concept of the socialist picture story developed in the 1960s. These stories unfolded across series of individual images that generally avoided word balloons and sound effects and were accompanied by detailed text. Using a realistic style, such stories tried to convey a strong sense of authenticity but they remained unable to develop complex characters or stories. However, in refl ecting the changing political climate of their times, these comics provide a rich source of material for studying the portrayal of history in East Germany.

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Making a Colonial Culture?

Empire and the French Public, 1880-1940

Edward Berenson

Tony Chafer and Amanda Sackur, eds., Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Visions of Empire in France (New York: Palgrave, 2002).

Pascal Blanchard and Sandrine Lemaire, Culture Coloniale: La France conquise par son Empire, 1871-1931 (Paris: Autrement, 2003).

Claude Liauzu and Josette Liauzu, Quand on chantait les colonies (Paris: Syllepse, 2002).

Patricia Morton, Hybrid Modernities: Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000).

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Michael Schuldiner

various comic strips. No doubt Picasso was also familiar with the alleluias , the old popular religious prints that presented their stories in three bands of three panels using a comic strip format. 2 Further, as Adam Gopnick points out, ‘propaganda

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Hugo Frey and Laurike in ‘t Veld

influences and drawing deeply on existing ‘vernacular’ themes. For Picasso, awareness of local cartoon culture and existing propaganda materials went without saying. After the Situationists, such matters had gained new theoretical edge, taking the ‘what went

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Introduction

Comics and Adaptation

Armelle Blin-Rolland, Guillaume Lecomte and Marc Ripley

posits as ‘historically situated, and ideologically filtered, views of Bretonness and Brittany’. While the former promotes an ideal Brittany, using its Christian roots and links with other Celtic nations as means of independence propaganda, Bran Ruz

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Adapting Brittany

The Ker-Is Legend in Bande Dessinée

Armelle Blin-Rolland

to collaborate with Nazi Germany. 10 O lo lê , while not a Breton equivalent of Le Téméraire [The bold] as an organ of Nazi propaganda, was openly Pétainist, using Vichy’s politics of provincialisation and petites patries [small homelands] to