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“Till I Have Done All That I Can”

An Auxiliary Nurse’s Memories of World War I

Michelle Moravec

compiler” and the capturing of “the memory of the cultural moment in which they were made.” 27 A complex interaction between Clarke’s memorializing and her repurposing of commercial souvenirs, propaganda, and press coverage makes interpreting them a

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Gauging the Propagandist’s Talents

William Le Queux’s Dubious Place in Literary History: Part One

A. Michael Matin

Shortly after the outbreak of World War One, Charles Masterman was appointed by Prime Minister Asquith to oversee a covert literary propaganda campaign in support of the British war effort. Although William Le Queux had been one of the most prominent British anti-German writers during the prewar years, he was not recruited for this governmental endeavour that included many of the nation’s best-known writers. Nonetheless, he continued on his own to publish anti-German propaganda throughout the war. These two articles assess Le Queux’s national security-oriented writings within that broader context, and they offer a methodology for gauging the potential efficacy of such texts based on recent developments in the field of risk-perception studies. Part One provides a historical and methodological foundation for both articles and assesses a number of Le Queux’s pre-1914 works. Part Two (published in Part II of this issue) examines Le Queux’s career and writings from 1914 through to his death in 1927.

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Gauging the Propagandist’s Talents

William Le Queux’s Dubious Place in Literary History: Part Two

A. Michael Matin

Shortly after the outbreak of World War One, Charles Masterman was appointed by Prime Minister Asquith to oversee a covert literary propaganda campaign in support of the British war effort. Although William Le Queux had been one of the most prominent British anti-German writers during the prewar years, he was not recruited for this governmental endeavour that included many of the nation’s best-known writers. Nonetheless, he continued on his own to publish anti-German propaganda throughout the war. These two articles assess Le Queux’s national security-oriented writings within that broader context, and they offer a methodology for gauging the potential efficacy of such texts based on recent developments in the field of risk-perception studies. Part One (published in Part I of this issue) provides a historical and methodological foundation for both articles and assesses a number of Le Queux’s pre-1914 works. Part Two examines Le Queux’s career and writings from 1914 through to his death in 1927.

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Nicole Hudgins

present day. 3 The avalanche of ruin photography in the archives, albums, publications, and propaganda of World War I France challenges us to understand what functions such images fulfilled beyond their use as visual records. Did wartime images of

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“Huns” and Other “Barbarians”

A Movie Ban and the Dilemmas of 1920s German Propaganda against French Colonial Troops

Julia Roos

In the early 1920s, Germany orchestrated an international propaganda campaign against colonial French troops stationed in the Rhineland that used the racist epithet “black horror on the Rhine,” and focused on claims of widespread sexual violence against innocent Rhenish maidens by African French soldiers, in order to discredit the Versailles Treaty. I argue that black horror propaganda fused elements of Allied propaganda—especially images of the barbaric “Hun”—with Germany's own wartime propaganda against colonial Allied troops. I use the significant film against colonial soldiers, Die schwarze Schmach (The Black Shame, 1921), to highlight the tensions and pitfalls of the German propagandistic strategy. As the debates over the film illustrate, black horror propaganda often had the effect of reminding audiences of German war crimes rather than diverting attention away from them. The ultimate ban of Die schwarze Schmach demonstrates the complex political nature of the 1920s backlash against atrocity propaganda.

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Sartre in Austria

Boycott, Scandals, and the Fight for Peace

Juliane Werner

, that is, having fallen for Soviet propaganda, others think “Sartre wasn’t as naïve as to believe that he … could speak in his own name.” 19 Either way, Sartre tells Le Monde , non-Communist participants automatically figure as “suckers or accomplices

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Letters after the Fact

Responses to Nuala O'Faolain's Are You Somebody?

Eibhlín Evans

Literary history might identify the 1990s as the decade of the memoir, as a period that witnessed a prodigious outpouring of sombre narratives of grim beginnings overcome in individual triumphs, or of scandalous escapades intimately exposed. However entertaining or shocking, few will be memorable, their highly personal recollections remaining pertinent to the lives of the authors alone. Publishing successes are often due to word of mouth recommendations as, for example, in the recent success of Lorna Sage’s excellent autobiography Bad Blood. Even in such cases we can claim that the writing is, as it were, consumed in a quiet way where its charms are celebrated in a low level, personalised propaganda which eventually leads to a more public recognition. Reviewers and publicity machines can play their part in the success of a book but we seldom find a situation where readers’ written responses amount to a collective and influential embrace which propels a publication into further public prominence.

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'This Is as True as All the Rest Is'

Religious Propaganda and the Representation of Truth in the 1580s

Tracey Hill

In the early 1580s religious propaganda was used extensively and ferociously to inform (or misinform) that sector of the English public that had access to such works about events involving a number of Catholic priests and sympathisers and their opponents. This period saw a major episode of crisis over counter-Reformation Catholicism, exemplified by the mission to England headed by Edmund Campion, and the consequent arrest, torture, trial and execution of Campion and his associates. Numerous texts were produced from a variety of perspectives to intervene in the representation of these men, their motives, the treatment they received, and the danger they may or may not have posed to Protestant England. The propagandist texts with which I am concerned range across the various possible positions on these and other Catholic priests.

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Revolting Men?

Sexual Fears and Fantasies in Writings by Old Men, 1880–1910

Ann Heilmann

‘Being a man,’ Norman Mailer once wrote, ‘is the continuing battle of one ’s life … [One] can hardly ever assume [one] has become a man’. At the turn of the nineteenth century, it was the unbecoming (collapse) of (English) manhood which was foremost in the minds of many male writers. The growing sense of a masculine collective self in crisis can be placed in direct correlation with the advances of the British women’s movement and its destabilization of patriarchal hegemonies. This article examines the way in which, in their endeavour to exorcize the threat of female cultural and sociopolitical agency, anti-feminist male writers pressed New Woman fiction into service as a medium for conservative propaganda. I shall be considering two textual configurations of the turn-of-the-century masculinity complex and its articulations of dread and desire, dystopia and the male free-love plot. Sexual fantasies of women’s reconfinement within the boundaries of male desire, these texts served to defuse, depoliticize and (hetero)sexualize the political and moral/social purist agendas of feminist activists and writers by transforming the New Woman – the agent of feminist rebellion in women’s fiction – into a Sexy Angel in the House.

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Elizabeth Hoyt and Gašper Jakovac

model of politics and leadership in Italy – Mussolini fashioning himself as the new Caesar – and the role of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar in Fascist cultural propaganda. Schoolchildren were guided through the play by prefaces and commentaries which