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Elizabeth C. Macknight

to promote laïcité . The republicans introduced free, compulsory state primary schooling (1880-1882); banned clerics and members of religious orders from teaching posts and education committees (1880, 1886, 1904); reinstituted divorce (1884); and

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Art to Table

The Power of Aesthetics in Women’s Cookbooks of the Belle Époque

Samantha Presnal

women were poised to conceptualize cuisine as something more than sustenance, to appreciate the aesthetic aspects of the meal. For the lower classes, with more modest levels of income and schooling, food was finite, so cuisine remained a matter of

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Pious Women in a “Den of Scorpions”

The Piety and Patronage of the Eleventh-Century Countesses of Brittany

Amy Livingstone

from secular lords and defending its property. Their support of Adele and the nuns signaled that they were good sons of the church and faithful Christians. Havoise was evidently successful in schooling her children to be faithful protectors of the

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An Intellectual Genealogy of the Revolt against “Esprit de Système”

From the Renaissance to the Early Enlightenment

Jeffrey D. Burson

humanistic schooling at a time when the capricious battery of Fortuna seemed everywhere inescapable. 2 Already by the late sixteenth century, despite (and indeed partly because of) the prolific rebirth of art and classical culture, Europe convulsed in “a

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The Conceptual and Anthropological History of Bat Mitzvah

Two Lexical Paths and Two Jewish Identities

Hizky Shoham

mitzvah party promoted by consumer culture, with many presents, new clothes, and more. Because of the expansion of coeducation schooling in the Yishuv during the interwar era, many girls were invited to such bar mitzvah parties and as a result were