This article elaborates on the connection between hygiene/cleanliness and the bureaucratic control of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. It discusses the role of stigmatisation in constructing immigrants' perceived backwardness and weakness, which necessitate guidance. The analysis also demonstrates the patronisation of immigrant women through inspection of their tidiness as mothers and housewives. The case of the Ethiopian immigrants, who began arriving in Israel at the beginning of the 1980s and still immigrate, will be used to suggest that the bureaucratic regulation of immigrants, rather than racism or cultural differentials, is behind the integration process. Moreover, the similarities between the absorption practices applied towards immigrants from Ethiopia and those from Muslim countries in the 1950s will be discussed in terms of the bureaucratic patronage over immigrants in Israel.
A. James McAdams
The future political culture of eastern Germany and, with it, the relationship
between unified Germany’s once divided populations will
depend heavily upon how all Germans respond to a distinctive fact
about the east. The region experienced not one but, counting the
German Democratic Republic (GDR), two separate eras of dictatorship.
This fact can be, and has been, understood in two different
ways, with significantly different implications in each case. The first
is the perspective of the victim. According to this view, the citizens of
the GDR uniquely had to shoulder the burden of having been born,
in effect, “in the wrong place.” Not only did they endure greater
hardships than their western counterparts, such as the rebuilding of
Germany after World War II, but they suffered by themselves
through the debilitating consequences of Soviet occupation and their
inability, until 1990, to act upon the right to “free self-determination”
(to quote the original preamble of the Basic Law). As a result, according
to this argument, easterners were owed special treatment after
unification because of their distinctive misfortunes.