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Love and Sex in Wartime

Controlling Women’s Sexuality in the Ukrainian Nationalist Underground

Marta Havryshko

transgressed the norms of accepted female sexual behavior by engaging in sexual and romantic relationships with the enemy during and soon after the war. This article is the first attempt to approach and provide a framework for the discussion of violence

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Representing the Enemy

The Iconography of the

Lara Campos Pérez

This article takes a close look at the iconographic construction of the so-called “otherness” in Spain between 1936 and 1945. During this three year period of civil unrest, the Franco regime set out to cast the defeated half of the war as an inimical “other.” In this process of building an impression of the “other,” the “New State,” created after April 1, 1939, played an important role, since in many ways the existence of this enemy “other” could favour unity between the rest, or “us.” The State used mandatory education as an efficient socialization tool in this process. The text looks at the different ways in which the image of the “other” was used in books that taught History, Civic Education and Patriotic Education in primary school.

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Enemies of the people

Theorizing dispossession and mirroring conspiracy in the Republic of Georgia

Katrine Bendtsen Gotfredsen

theorized and challenged through accounts of conspiracy and morally suspicious powers. I attend to these processes in the remaining sections. Enemies of the people Otar, whom we met in the opening vignette, has had similar experiences as the women above. He

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The Terror of their Enemies

Reflections on a Trope in Eighteenth-Century Historiography

Ronald Schechter

This article attempts to explain the appeal of "terror" in the French Revolution by examining the history of the concept of terror. It focuses on historiographical representations of sovereign powers, whether monarchs or nations, as "terrors" of their enemies. It argues that the term typically connoted majesty, glory, justice and hence legitimacy. Moreover, historiographical depictions of past rulers and nations frequently emphasized the transiency of terror as an attribute of power; they dramatized decline in formulations such as "once terrible." For the revolutionaries, terror therefore provided a means of legitimation, but one that always had to be guarded and reinforced.

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Identified as the Enemy

Being a Portuguese New Christian at the Time of The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon

Richard Zimler

I would like to describe the nightmare of being a Jew or New Christian during a unique period in Portuguese history, beginning in the year 1492 and ending in 1536 – the era, not coincidentally, that corresponds to the events in a novel of mine that was recently released in Britain, The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon.

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Silke Mende

The West German Green Party's 1983 entrance into the Bundestag marked a major break, both in the history of this young political force and the parliamentary system of the Bonn Republic. The Greens had been founded in opposition to the guiding principles of the West German postwar consensus and conceived of themselves as an “anti-parliamentary party.” Although they had gained parliamentary experience in some regional chambers, their entrance onto the national parliamentary stage juxtaposed old ideals and new challenges—for the Greens themselves as well as for German political culture. Taking this singular historic moment as a starting point, this article summarizes the formation of the Greens in the context of the changing political and ideological landscape of the 1970s. It also contrasts the party's formation with the transformations in terms of program and personnel that it undertook during the 1980s. The focus lies less on the specific activities of the green parliamentary group than on the broader developments in green politics and thinking.

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Olivera Simic

Sympathizing with the Enemy: Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Negotiation by Nir Eisikovits

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Children Born of War

A European Research Network Exploring the Life Histories of a Hidden Population

Kimberley Anderson and Sophie Roupetz

recognize children born to local mothers and fathered by enemy soldiers, occupying forces, locally stationed forces or peacekeeping forces 2 during conflicts of the past one hundred years, and to enhance the understanding of their experiences. Many of these

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Creating borders in young minds

A case study of Indian and Pakistani school textbooks

Dhananjay Tripathi

tool utilized to achieve this objective is education, especially through the introduction of textbooks, which are used to create a notion of otherness in young minds and, in many cases, “the other” subsequently takes the shape of an enemy. How this is

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In the Eyes of Some Britons

Aleppo, an Enlightenment City

Mohammad Sakhnini

” in Europe, Drummond wrote, inveighed against the unlimited ambition and insincerity of our enemies; expatiated upon the kingly and paternal virtues of our monarch, whom I stiled his Imperial Majesty of Great Britain; described his naval power, and