light discursive rivalries, the issue of punishment reveals a snapshot of a society and its conflicts over primary resources. How did the agricultural uses of fire collide with the approaches of rational forestry imposed in nineteenth-century Algeria
Agricultural Fire or Arson?
Rural Denizens, Forest Administration, and the Colonial Situation in Algeria (1850–1900)
The Mendès France Milk Regime
Alcoholism as a Problem of Agricultural Subsidies, 1954–1955
In 1954, Pierre Mendès France committed the state to curbing alcoholism as part of an effort to reorient important agricultural sectors and improve French economic performance, using milk as a symbol of his government's new direction. While Mendès France's milk drinking was often portrayed as the whim of a maverick politician, this article shows instead that it was the expression of a broadly based movement to modernize the economy. Challenging the view of an insular state that exclusively served the powerful alcohol lobbies, this article contends that the success of alcohol reform hinged on Mendès France's ability to overcome parliament and pit other economic sectors and a public health movement against those lobbies. Although it would require the more centralized authority of the Fifth Republic to implement lasting reforms to the alcohol sector, the Mendès France government helped raise public awareness about the purported link between alcoholism and agricultural subsidies that kept uncompetitive producers on the land at the taxpayer's expense.
The Modus Operandi of Urban Agriculture Initiatives
Toward a Conceptual Framework
Charlotte Prové, Denise Kemper, and Salma Loudiyi
Over recent decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of urban agriculture initiatives (UAIs) across the Western world. The understanding of urban agriculture (UA) has shifted from urban food production practices in and around cities for
From Urban Agriculture to Urban Food
Food System Analysis Based on Interaction Between Research, Policy, and Society
Heidrun Moschitz, Jan Landert, Christian Schader, and Rebekka Frick
Urban Agriculture in the Urban Food System Urban agriculture practice involves a new way of thinking about food, including a critique of the predominant food system. It plays a major role in making food visible and can thus support a general
Distributing Responsibilities in an Agricultural Ecosystem
Insights from the Lake Naivasha Water Basin in Kenya
Introduction Over the past several decades, new policy instruments have emerged that aim to mitigate the negative impacts of agricultural activities on ecosystems and climate change. Since the late 1990s, this has notably resulted in the rapid
Demographic Change: Impacts on Rural Landscapes
Stefan Heiland, Silke Spielmans, and Bernd Demuth
The article examines the relevance of demographic change for the development of rural landscapes, especially in Germany's shrinking regions. To date, no empirical investigations have undertaken the matter. Thus, the article is mainly based on literature analysis and the findings of expert workshops. The research indicates that demographic change does not have as strong impact on landscapes as other factors such as agricultural policy, climate change, and the promotion of renewable energies. Nonetheless, from the perspective of nature conservation, there might be some indirect effects caused by structural and institutional changes of administrations, which could lead to a decline in importance of landscape-related concerns. In addition, changes in environmental consciousness due to rising cultural diversity could lead to a different societal attitude toward landscapes and their values.
Cosmopolitanism and the French Anti-GM Movement
This paper explores the rights-based cosmopolitanism of French anti-GM activists and their challenge to the neoliberal cosmopolitanism of the World Trade Organization and multinational corporations. Activists argue that genetic modification, patents, and WTO-brokered free trade agreements are the means by which multinationals deny people fundamental rights and seek to dominate global agriculture. Through forms of protest, which include cutting down field trials of genetically modified crops, activists resist this agenda of domination and champion the rights of farmers and nations to opt out of the global agricultural model promoted by biotechnology companies. In so doing, they defend the local. This defense, however, is based on a cosmopolitan discourse of fundamental rights and the common good. I argue that activists' cosmopolitan perspective does not transcend the local but is intimately related to a particular understanding of it.
The End of Agricultural Supremacy
The 2009 Reform of Israel's National Land Policy
This study examines the impact of the Israel Land Administration (ILA) reform of 2009 on Israeli land policy in general and on the status of agricultural land in particular. Despite repeated statements by government representatives that the reform pertains only to urban land, my analysis reveals that this legislation has dramatically changed the relationship between urban and agricultural land in Israel. For more than a century, agricultural land enjoyed both substantive and quantitative supremacy over urban land, but after the reform was approved, urban land became the default land definition. I suggest explanations for these fundamental changes and discuss their implications for the future, including the need to formulate new definitions for land uses in both the agricultural and urban sectors.
Cultures of Soy and Cattle in the Context of Reduced Deforestation and Agricultural Intensification in the Brazilian Amazon
al. 2014 ). Simultaneously with this drop in deforestation rates, Brazil increased its GDP by 32 percent (Federal Republic of Brazil 2015) primarily through agricultural intensification, and specifically through cattle ranching and the production of
Becoming an Agricultural Growth Corridor
African Megaprojects at a Situated Scale
Serena Stein and Marc Kalina
Emerging agricultural growth corridors (AGCs) are often depicted by those who design, plan, and study them as actualized, existing spaces. However, on the ground, what exactly a corridor is, and how they are imagined conceptually and lived daily