For Sartre, shame is not an ethical but an ontological experience. With this in mind, the article examines the philosophical connection between shame and ambiguity through analysis of the experiences of abortion and the Nazi Occupation. The article demonstrates how Beauvoir develops Sartre's ontological notion of shame into an ethical philosophy of ambiguity as a result of wartime experiences. It demonstrates how encounters with shame, abortion, ambiguity and Occupation life in Beauvoir's 1945 novel Le sang des autres elucidate and are developed by Sartre and Beauvoir's philosophies of shame and ambiguity. The paper proposes that Sartre's and Beauvoir's thought was shaped by living through the Nazi Occupation and reveals how the memory of wartime shame is activated in contemporary ethical dilemmas in later literary works of both writers.
From Shame towards an Ethics of Ambiguity
Sartre and Theatrical Ambiguity
This overview of Sartre's theater within the context of the symposium focuses on the inherent ambiguities of his theory and practice. His plays, as committed literature, are not always successful in their pedagogical intention of changing the minds of his audiences. On the one hand, he seeks to provide universal situations with which everyone can collectively identify, and on the other he wishes to convince them of the value of freedom and confront them with problems and conflicts they must resolve for themselves. These spectators then exercise that freedom by taking ideological viewpoints that are in conflict with those of the plays. Moreover, the plays are often complex and ambiguous, and set far from a contemporary French context, thus demanding a certain sophistication of interpretation. Sartre's skill as a dramatist is to write plays that engage the public in debates about the key questions of the day, even though, because of his open approach, he does not always succeed in changing their minds.
The Ambiguity of Subversion
Resistance through Radio Broadcasting
systemic violence, without reproducing the politically troubling myths of heroic agency. This article seeks to contribute to thinking the grey zones of resistance by examining the ambiguity of subversion as a practice of resistance. Subversion, commonly
Beyond Oracular Ambiguity
Divination, Lies, and Ontology in Early Greek Literature
statements, “the Greeks could not consider their gods liars” ( Bonnechere 2010: 147 ). Sidestepping the problematic character of the gods, divination studies often quickly proceed to list success stories that emphasize ambiguous but accurate results. This
Disney's Specific and Ambiguous Princess
A Discursive Analysis of Elena of Avalor
was positioned within the realm of what Angharad Valdivia (2011 , 2020 ) explains as Disney's hybrid and ambiguously ethnic representations in which the company deploys non-white characters with no specific link to a place of origin or culture, in
Infrastructure, memory and identity in indigenous Evenki communities along the Baikal–Amur Mainline
The Baikal–Amur Mainline (BAM) project has been the embodiment of (post‐)Soviet modernisation with its promises of economic prosperity, mobility and connectivity. It boosted regional development and introduced new forms of mobility, but also accelerated sedentarisation, assimilation and social polarisation among Evenki, an indigenous people who had been living in the region long before the arrival of the megaproject. Complex and often ambiguous entanglements of Evenki with the BAM infrastructure – from participation in construction to the exchange of goods to loss of reindeer and land, shaped indigenous ways of life, memories and identities. The master‐narrative of the BAM seems to have been internalised by many Evenki and to have drowned out critical voices and indigenous identities. In this article, I direct attention to ‘hidden transcripts’, thereby giving voice to underrepresented memories and perspectives on the BAM within Evenki communities. Drawing on ethnographic materials and interviews with indigenous leaders, reindeer herders and village residents, who experienced the arrival of the BAM and have been entangled with the railroad in various ways, I seek to contribute to a critical and comprehensive history of the BAM and to explore the construction and articulation of indigenous identities large‐scale infrastructure and development projects.
Sartre's Theater of Resistance: Les Mouches and the Deadlock of Collective Responsibility
Sartre's play Les Mouches (The Flies), first performed in 1943 under German occupation, has long been controversial. While intended to encourage resistance against the Nazis, its approval by the censor indicates that the regime did not recognize the play as a threat. Further, its apparently violent and solitary themes have been read as irresponsible or apolitical. For these reasons, the play has been characterized as ambiguous or worse. Sartre himself later saw it as overemphasizing individual autonomy, and in the view of one critic, it conveys an “existentialist fascism.” In response to this reading, it is necessary to attend to the elements of the play that already emphasize duty to society. From this perspective, the play can be seen as anticipating the concern with collective responsibility usually associated with the later Sartre of the 1960s. More than this, the play's apparent “ambiguity” can be found to exemplify a didacticism that is much more complex than sometimes attributed to Sartre. It is not only an exhortation about ethical responsibility, but also a performance of the difficulties attendant to that duty.
Management of ambiguity
Favours and flexibility in Bosnia and Herzegovina
This article ethnographically outlines how one woman politician in a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina used favours to help ‘get things done’, becoming perceived as a ‘goddess’ who ‘spent herself’ for the sake of others. The article suggests that such people managed to gather power through the paradox of keeping‐while‐giving (Weiner, . . . Berkeley: California UP). People able to grant numerous favours in multiple public and private arenas kept aside the position of the person able to manage ambiguity, which was part of the new ad hoc, flexible forms of governance, exercised by both the international and the local actors in the country.
Ambiguous Narratives of World War Technologies in Contemporary Military History Museums
usually tells a closed story of the past. More often than not, it synthesizes ambiguities into a single comprehensive historical development that tells a story of technological progress or of a technology's successful deployment in military campaigns. The
Ambiguous Attachments and Industrious Nostalgias
Heritage Narratives of Russian Old Believers in Romania
heritage discourses ( Kordiš 2015 ) is foregrounded in such narratives that make recourse to roots and belonging to instil a sense of duty for future preservation. As I discussed here, there is also an ambiguity of attachments, which locates their identity