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Conjuring Futures

Culture and Decolonization in the Dutch Caribbean, 1948–1975

Chelsea Schields

This article explores the history of the Foundation for Cultural Cooperation between the Netherlands, Suriname, and the Netherlands Antilles (Sticusa), asking how cultural institutions partook in the process of decolonization. Analyzing the perspectives of Sticusa collaborators and critics in the Caribbean, I argue that cultural actors saw decolonization as an opportunity to reorient cultures toward an emergent world order. In this process, they envisioned a range of horizons, from closer integration with Europe to enhanced affinity with the broader Americas. By the 1970s, however, these horizons narrowed to the attainment of national sovereignty, and Sticusa’s cultural experiment ended as a result.

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“One Hand Washes the Other”

Social Capital and the Politics of Leisure in Guadeloupean Associations

Kathe Managan

Through a close look at events observed in three Guadeloupean voluntary associations—a retirees' club, a youth group, and a dance club—this essay examines the politics of leisure activities, helping to illuminate the ways that social capital operates in associations and how politics permeates everyday life on the French island of Guadeloupe. I consider the ways that Putnam's view of social capital differs from Bourdieu's. I argue associations are an important source of social capital for some marginalized members of Guadeloupean society who convert this social capital into economic, political, or social advancement. At the same time, social capital is unevenly accessible within associations and it operates in a context of political patronage. My data suggests that we need to rethink the concept of social capital to account for the complexity of the ways it works in society.

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Justin Daniel

The double commitment of Aimé Césaire on the political and literary fronts as well as the comparison between his achievements in these two fields of activity have drawn various interpretations, often impassioned. This contribution proposes to throw light on some apparent or real paradoxes that underlie his political thought and action. It also tries to evaluate his role through his literary commitment and his investment in the political field by taking into account the specific logics at work in each of these spheres, without neglecting their own temporality, as well as their possible contradictions or complementarities.

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Sally Price

Susan Sontag seems to have been on to something when she placed her word portraits of Michel Leiris and Claude Lévi-Strauss back to back.2 An elaboration of her comparison (which was more implied than explicit) may help situate anthropological practice in France—and Leiris’ special role in it—within the larger context of trends elsewhere in the world.

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Césaire is Dead

Long Live Césaire! Recuperations and Reparations

A. James Arnold

Events surrounding Aimé Césaire's funeral in Martinique (April 2008) brought to the fore a number of unresolved contradictions that have swirled around his literary production, as well as his political legacy, for decades. Did Césaire really mean to speak for a culturally and historically determined group of dispossessed colonials and former colonials, as he often stated from the 1960s onward? Or did he intend to appeal to a biologically determined collective unconscious, as he sometimes stated in less guarded moments? Finally, should Césaire's ambiguous statements about the movement to require reparations from the French state for centuries of enslavement in the Antilles be taken as an endorsement of such demands? None of these questions were resolved in the flood of writing about Césaire's importance and significance in the year of his death.

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Rudeness and Modernity

The Reception of American Tourists in Early Fifth-Republic France

Christopher Endy

Pierre Dumas had high hopes for the 1965 tourist season. At the very least, the French state secretary for tourism hoped to avoid the frustrations of the previous year, when the US and French press, and even French senators, accused the French of being rude to foreign guests. As warmer weather returned in April, Dumas traveled to the new Orly Airport outside Paris to launch his response. He greeted foreigners, mostly Americans, as they disembarked for stays in France. Young women dressed in the white gloves and modern pink dresses of official Hôtesses de France stood beside him, handing out free roses and perfume bottles. Dumas himself distributed booklets of “smile checks” (chèques-sourire), which the government had printed for its new “National Campaign for Reception and Friendliness.” When tourists felt they received particularly good service in a hotel, restaurant, or elsewhere, they were to tear out one of their ten smile checks, inscribe the name and institution of the friendly employee, and then mail it, no postage required, to the government’s tourist office. At the end of the season, the government would award the ten most-honored French workers with vacation trips of their own to Tahiti, the Antilles or New York City.

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Naomi J. Andrews, Simon Jackson, Jessica Wardhaugh, Shannon Fogg, Jessica Lynne Pearson, Elizabeth Campbell, Laura Levine Frader, Joshua Cole, Elizabeth A. Foster, and Owen White

Silyane Larcher, L’Autre Citoyen: L’idéal républicain et les Antilles après l’esclavage (Paris: Armand Colin, 2014).

Elizabeth Heath, Wine, Sugar, and the Making of Modern France: Global Economic Crisis and the Racialization of French Citizenship, 1870–1910 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Rebecca Scales, Radio and the Politics of Sound in Interwar France, 1921–1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Claire Zalc, Dénaturalisés: Les retraits de nationalité sous Vichy (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2016).

Bertram M. Gordon, War Tourism: Second World War France from Defeat and Occupation to the Creation of Heritage (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2018).

Shannon L. Fogg, Stealing Home: Looting, Restitution, and Reconstructing Jewish Lives in France, 1942–1947 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Sarah Fishman, From Vichy to the Sexual Revolution: Gender and Family Life in Postwar France (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Frederick Cooper, Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945–1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014).

Jessica Lynne Pearson, The Colonial Politics of Global Health: France and the United Nations in Postwar Africa (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018).

Darcie Fontaine, Decolonizing Christianity: Religion and the End of Empire in France and Algeria (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

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Reviews

The Environment as an Umbrella Concept; From Word to Historical Concept

Risto-Matti Matero and Juan Alejandro Pautasso

Peninsula, the United States, the French Antilles, Brazil, and part of Hispanic America. The volume forms part of the prolific and vast historiographical reflections and studies that derive from the heterogeneous bicentennial celebrations in the Iberian

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Les journaux francophones au dix-neuviéme siécle

Entre enjeux locaux et perspective globale

Guillaume Pinson

ainsi à ses lecteurs qu’il avait mobilisé l’ensemble de ce réseau de distribution : « Il sera fait des dépôts de cette dernière feuille chez nos agents de la Nouvelle-Orléans, des Antilles et du continent de l’Amérique du Sud, chez lesquels nos abonnés

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Owen White and Elizabeth Heath

: University of California Press, 2009), 250–280. 16 See Jennifer Sessions, By Sword and Plow: France and the Conquest of Algeria (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011); Myriam Cottias, “Mariage et citoyenneté dans les Antilles françaises (XVII e –XX e