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Tim J. Smith

The intention of most film editing is to create the impression of continuity by editing together discontinuous viewpoints. The continuity editing rules are well established yet there exists an incomplete understanding of their cognitive foundations. This article presents the Attentional Theory of Cinematic Continuity (AToCC), which identifies the critical role visual attention plays in the perception of continuity across cuts and demonstrates how perceptual expectations can be matched across cuts without the need for a coherent representation of the depicted space. The theory explains several key elements of the continuity editing style including match-action, matchedexit/entrances, shot/reverse-shot, the 180° rule, and point-of-view editing. AToCC formalizes insights about viewer cognition that have been latent in the filmmaking community for nearly a century and demonstrates how much vision science in general can learn from film.

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William Brown

David Bordwell (2002) has described contemporary mainstream cinema as a cinema of intensified continuity. When we combine Bordwell's analysis with that of recent cognitive work on attention, especially with work on edit blindness, we discover some intriguing results. For example, the increased rate of cutting in contemporary cinema serves to keep our attention continually aroused, but, at the same time, that which arouses our attention—the increased number of cuts—becomes decreasingly visible. That is, the greater the number of cuts made in the services of continuity editing, the less we are able to spot them. If, while watching contemporary mainstream cinema, the attention of viewers is aroused but viewers are decreasingly capable of spotting the reasons why this is so (i.e., the cuts themselves), then does this also serve to make contemporary mainstream cinema “post-ideological,” because it concerns itself only with “intensified” experiences? Or, as this article argues, does the sheer speed of contemporary mainstream cinema renew the need for the ideological critique of films?

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Karin Luisa Badt

Neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp's theory of SEEKING offers a fundamental insight into why film spectators are engaged by what they see on screen. This article offers a new reading of Panksepp's SEEKING theory and how it applies to spectatorship, a reading informed by two months of the author's personal exchange with the scientist. The article states that the SEEKING impulse—defined as the emotional instinct to seek resources—applies not only to how the spectator identifies with the main character and his search for resources, but to how the spectator responds to visual and aural cues regardless of the story or characters. The article provides a corrective to spectator theories which focus too narrowly on narrative as a cue for viewer mental activity. An examination of two scenes from The Bicycle Thief and Stalker shows how SEEKING can occur on both the primary and tertiary level, thus breaking the emotion-cognition divide.

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Karen Pearlman

cognitive purpose of the rules of continuity cutting, “The Attentional Theory of Cinematic Continuity.” It builds on Smith’s landmark study on the flow of attention across edits by focusing on an anomaly within the example he uses, and asserts

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Regina F. Bendix

attention can work towards this goal in offering reflection on what are often social, not intellectual impasses. Our research unit assembled cultural and social anthropologists, economists and legal scholars from international to civil and economic law

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Theatre and Ideology

Staging The Merchant of Venice at the Hungarian National Theatre in 1940 and 1986

Zoltán Imre

with the forty-six-year gap, and focuses on why Merchant was considered a ‘problematic’ play within the socialist universe of the Kádár regime. As a result, I would like to draw attention to the ways in which the dominant ideology of these entirely

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Afterword

Reversing the world—What austerity does to time and place

Theodoros Rakopoulos

Fernand Braudel. Indicative is how Giovanni Arrighi's (1994 , 2007 ) ambitious project developed, from an intra-European framework to his attention to China. If that is the case, one also wonders what to do with the temporal component of the historical

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Andreas Baranowski and Heiko Hecht

“ The photoplay tells us the human story by overcoming the forms of the outer world, namely, space, time, and causality, and by adjusting the events to the forms of the inner world, namely, attention, memory, imagination, and emotion .” Münsterberg

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Rachel Rosen and Sarah Crafter

the “luggage” that accompanies adult migrants ( Orellana et al. 2001 ), the social sciences as a whole have been slow to consider the status and experiences of child migrants ( White et al. 2011 ), with only minimal attention being paid to their

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Lourdes Prados Torreira

performed certain tasks. For example, in prehistoric times we do not have data to tell us who made the cave paintings, or who made stone tools and the like. The discourses traditionally used for Prehistory have rarely paid any attention to women ( Díaz