Do television news programs meet viewer expectations and needs? Research into this issue found the answer to be negative. There is a breakdown between the editors of current a airs programs and the viewers. One of the reasons for this is the two groups' different systems of values. All the news editors on Israeli television were given a closed questionnaire based on "uses and gratification." They marked the degree of journalistic importance of each parameter and the extent to which these parameters are treated within their programs. Simultaneously, the questionnaire was presented to a representative sample of viewers, who were asked about the importance of the parameters for them and the extent to which these parameters are found in television current a airs programs. This study finds a huge gap between the viewers and the editors in both the public and commercial channels. The research findings support researchers that criticize the "usage and gratification" approach as explaining media consumption.
There is no question that violent entertainments shape popular attitudes toward violence. But do they really make the culture as a whole more violent? Can they work to make it less violent? This article considers shortcomings of conventional scholarly approaches to these questions. It outlines an alternative “ecological“ approach and tests it by examining two movies that treat violence in strikingly different fashions: The Dark Knight (2008) and Saving Private Ryan (1998). It tests empirically whether and how Saving Private Ryan actually changes college students' attitudes toward violence, and summarizes the best current psychological models of the causal connection between violent thoughts and violent behavior. The article concludes that while violent movies do indeed prompt violent ideas and impulses, these are not necessarily antisocial and can, in fact, be prosocial. The critical factor is not what they show or how they show it; it is how they are used.