luxury produced “agreeable sensations,” the pleasurable experience of refined, sociable living. Adam Smith even grounded his understanding of moral sentiments and the sociability necessary in a commercial society on the notion of an impartial spectator, a
Corporeal Sociability and the Language of Commerce in Eighteenth-Century Britain and France
Joseph D. Bryan
Local Trade and Exchange/Employment Systems (LETS) in Future Eco-sustainable Societies
(2007: 2) , that ‘[s]hifting our focus to local economies will not mean abandoning Adam Smith or doing away with markets’. Rather, McKibben continues (2007: 125) ‘we may be able to re-create some of the institutions that marked, say, Adam Smith’s
Sherran Clarence, Raphael de Kadt, and Fabio Zoia
(Un)thinking Citizenship. Feminist Debates in Contemporary South Africa, edited by Amanda Gouws Sherran Clarence
Democracy and Exchange: Schumpeter, Galbraith, T.H. Marshall, Titmuss and Adam Smith by David Reisman Raphael de Kadt
The Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Apartheid, Democracy, by Nigel Worden Fabio Zoia
Smith in Beijing, Stalin in Urumchi
Ethnicity, political economy, and violence in Xinjiang, 1759–2009
The extraordinary growth rates of China’s “reform socialist” economy have helped to finance not only the United States’ debt but also large-scale transfers to the country’s underdeveloped regions. Yet violence in Tibet in 2008 was followed in July 2009 by major rioting in Xinjiang. This article approaches the latter events through the analysis of contemporary labor markets, socialist policies toward ethnic minorities, and the history of Xinjiang’s incorporation into the Manchu empire. Theoretical inspiration for this longue durée analysis is drawn from Adam Smith, via Giovanni Arrighi’s recent reassessment of the Smithian market model; anthropological work points to flaws in this vision.
Schumpeter and Democracy and Exchange
A Scottish Leitmotiv
The global economy is battling financial crisis and recession on an unprecedented scale. Reisman's book Democracy and Exchange reviews the contributions of a number of thinkers including Adam Smith and Joseph Schumpeter to the task of making ordinary people feel tolerably happy with the outcomes that affect their lives. The article argues that although Smith is viewed as the principal figure in the Scottish political economy tradition, there are other writers, notably John Rae whose ideas may have more contemporary relevance than those of Smith. A return to the ideas of Rae and Schumpeter, particularly on fiscal policy, may provide important insights into the financial crisis.
So Weber Was Right All Along
Some 200 years have passed since the publication of Adam Smith’s An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations launched the modern discipline of economics. Economics has travelled a long path since then, but a number of the questions with which Smith was concerned at the outset have remained with us and perhaps have gained increased urgency over time. It is thus not surprising that the latter half of the twentieth century has seen a renewed focus on the question that informs Smith’s original title: the determinants of the performance of economies (or nations) in the very long run.
On the Benefits of Sympathy for Political Reconciliation
The work of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission has generated a great deal of interest in the role of forgiveness in politics. More specifically, it has raised the question of whether forgiveness should be a constitutive part of reconciliation processes between groups. In this paper, I argue that it should not, and that it might be both more useful and more realistic to consider something like Adam Smith’s notion of ‘sympathy’ instead. The first part examines the arguments for and against policies promoting political forgiveness. The second part suggests sympathy as an alternative. The third part considers and rejects some objections to the employment of sympathy in this context.
What Determines the Boundary of Civil Society?
Hume, Smith and the Justification of European Exploitation of Non-Europeans
Elias L. Khalil
Civil society consists of members obligated to respect each other's rights and, hence, trade with each other as equals. What determines the boundary, rather than the nature, of civil society? For Adam Smith, the boundary consists of humanity itself because it is determined by identification: humans identify with other humans because of common humanness. While Smith's theory can explain the emotions associated with justice (jubilance) and injustice (resentment), it provides a mushy ground for the boundary question: Why not extend the common identity to nonhuman animals? Or why not restrict the boundary to one's own dialect, ethnicity or race? For David Hume, the boundary need not consist of humanity itself because it is determined by self-interest: a European need not respect the property of outsiders such as Native Americans, if the European benefits more by exploiting them than including them in the European society. While Hume's theory can provide a solid ground for the boundary question, it cannot explain the emotions associated with justice. This paper suggests a framework that combines the strengths, and avoids the shortcomings, of Smith's and Hume's theories.
Rawls. Sen opposes the Rawlsian search for a set of principles that should govern institutions in society: according to him, the question of justice should be concerned with how to overcome injustices. In this chapter, Hamilton explains how Sen uses Adam
Une lutte à trois
les propriétaires fonciers anglais et la répartition du revenu national dans le Capital (1867)
Mathieu J. Lainé
Il consacra par suite les chapitres XXVI-XXXIII du livre I du Capital (1865–1867) au mouvement des enclosures, dans l'espoir d'y dévoiler les véritables origines de ces capitaux qui auraient supposément servi, selon Adam Smith, de point de départ à