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Intuiting Gods

Creed and Cognition in the Fourth Century

Marilyn Dunn

Combining history, theology, and the cognitive study of religion, this article offers a new interpretation of the origins and purpose of the fourth-century Trinitarian theology known as Homoianism, suggesting that it aimed to create an “entry-level“ Christianity as a first step in gradually easing polytheists into Christianity. It highlights the polemical nature of Homoianism's characterization as “Arianism,“ and examines the beliefs of Homoianism's proponents, including those of Ulfila, the “apostle of the Goths.“ This article suggests that the Homoian view of the Trinity attempted to map non-Christian intuitions of divinity onto the Christian doctrine of God. It points to Homoianism's Western origins on the Roman Empire's strategically important Danubian frontier, arguing that a Homoian creed should be seen not only in the wider context of the “Arian Controversy,“ but also as part of attempts to ensure the peaceful Romanization of the Goths.

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Shamanism in Inner Asia

Two archetypes

T. D. Skrynnikova

The author considers that the term 'shamanism' is inappropriate to designate the phenomenon generally so described. Materials on the shamanism of the peoples of Inner Asia lead to the identification of two separate archetypes, i.e. east-Asian and southwest-Asian. Two traditional cultural codes are discussed - that concerned with the principal 'personages' (the supreme deities), and that with the 'agents' (the performers of the ritual). In the east-Asian archetype, the two principal deities are the Sky and the Earth, and the major socially significant rituals - for example, New Year - are carried out by secular leaders, such as the khan, elders, heads of clans, and others. In the southwest archetype, which developed under the influence of ancient Iranian and Indo-Arian traditions, there was a triad of heavenly beings, of which the major one was the Sun, accompanied by groups of other, lesser deities - those of the 'right' and those of the 'left'. The author concludes that only where the cult of the Sun is observed (later possibly mingled with the Thunder-god) do 'white' shamans perform the sacred functions and rituals.

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Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar, Yasmin Alkalay, and Tom Aival

-generation Mizrahim supported the Likud while the Ashkenazim supported the Labor Party. In this vein, Arian (1975) noted that since the average age of Mizrahim was lower than that of Ashkenazim, 4 if current trends persisted, the Likud would grow stronger at Labor

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Steven Brooke, Dafne Accoroni, Olga Ulturgasheva, Anastasios Panagiotopoulos, Eugenia Roussou, Francesco Vacchiano, Jeffrey D. Howison, Susan Greenwood, Yvonne Daniel, Joana Bahia, Gloria Goodwin Raheja, Charles Lincoln Vaughan, Katrien Pype, and Linda van de Kamp

AL-ARIAN, Abdullah, Answering the Call: Popular Islamic Activism in Sadat’s Egypt , 320 pp., notes, bibliography, index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Hardback, £37.49. ISBN 9780199931279. The history of Islamic activism in 1970s Egypt has

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Two Patterns of Modernization

An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel

Shlomo Fischer

that only now did the Mizrahi ballot start to be a floating vote. This mobility, most scholars would agree (see Peres and Shemer 1984 ; Shamir and Arian 1982 ), can be attributed to (1) the transfer of control over resources from the Labor Party to

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Maoz Rosenthal

the basis of a controversy regarding Israel’s governability ( Rosenthal 2016: chap. 5 ). Assessments of Knesset committees alternate between viewing them as rubber stamps of the coalition’s wishes ( Arian 2005: 294 ) or hailing them as dynamic

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Amir Goldstein

also Arian 1972: 193–196 ). In 1973, the Likud won the soldiers’ vote and defeated Ma’arach by a margin of 41.2 to 39.5 percent. Ma’arach’s decline among soldiers from 52 percent to less than 40 percent from 1969 to 1973 was significant. Israel

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Eternity and Print

How Medieval Ideas of Time Influenced the Development of Mechanical Reproduction of Texts and Images

Bennett Gilbert

's target was the Arian claim that Jesus was begotten in time rather than existent in eternity. 18 To defeat Eunomius's claim of temporal duration (“begetting”) in the procession of the Holy Spirit and the Son from the Father, Gregory argues that if we are

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Jewish Messianism and Revolutionary Utopias in Central Europe

Erich Fromm’s Early Writings (1922–1930)

Michael Löwy

a general feeling of guilt – along with a masochistic need for atonement. 16 Fromm is also interested in the theological confrontations until the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325): he perceived in Montanism and Arianism tendencies of hostility to the

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Max Stille

. 49 For a study of the influence of concepts of science for the formulation of what is religion in the Aligarh movement, see Arian Hopf, “The Dynamics of the Concept of Religion in Colonial South Asia: An Analysis of the Conceptions of Religion and