the modern behavioral sciences. For Saint Augustine, who framed the Catholic position on suicide, self-killing is a sin, a form of murder. For psychologists since the nineteenth century, disposing of one’s life is a sign of mental illness. For Emile
The Transformation of Suicide in Western Thought
Relative Painlessness in Shakespeare’s Laughter at War
theological traditions that influenced thinking about war in Shakespeare’s world, there were of course pacifist approaches; however, Augustine’s seminal ideas about ‘just war’ were much more commonly adopted. 1 For Augustine, there were exceptions to the
‘Race’ in US American Language
Once described as humankind’s most dangerous myth, ‘race’ remains a most contentious concept: it is defined one way but used in another. This article examines the use of the term ‘race’ in the utterances of American opinion leaders (scholars and the judiciary, executive, and media) and employs it to explore the dissonance between substantiated knowledge and cultural impositions and the manner in which customary norms outperform scientific facts in everyday interactions. Arguing that the use of the word ‘race’ by opinion leaders furthers its socio-culturally assumed connotations and excites associated emotions and worldviews, the article asks if the change in behavior expected from learning ever occurs in social matters and what the responsibilities of (American) elites are in providing purposeful leadership toward a just and fair society.
Anna Sapir Abulafia
Latin Christendom, the principle that Jews were tolerated in Christian society because they were deemed to be useful to Christians. 2 It was Augustine (d.430) who formulated a theological position that permanently embedded Judaism in Catholic theology
This article attempts to redress the neglect of Sartre's relationship to Augustine, putting forward a reading of the early Sartre as an atheist who appropriated concepts from Augustinian theology. In particular, it is argued, Sartre owes a debt to the Augustinian doctrine of original sin. Sartre's portrait of human reality in Being and Nothingness is bleak: consciousness is lack; self-knowledge is impossible; and to turn to the human other is to face the imprisonment of an objectifying gaze. But this has recognizable antecedents in Augustine's account of the condition of human fallenness. The article, therefore, (a) demonstrates the significant similarities between Sartre's ontology of human freedom and Augustine's ontology of human sin; and (b) asks whether Sartre's project – as defined in Existentialism Is a Humanism – 'to draw the full conclusions from a consistently atheistic position' – results in a vision of the world without God, but not without sin. It is proposed that this opens the possibility for a previously unexplored theological reading of Sartre's early work.
Honour at the Stake
Shakespeare himself was a pacifist. In keeping with most international law regarding war today, Meron draws heavily on just war theory, as it emerged in the Middle Ages out of scholastic reflections on St. Augustine’s City of God , as well as Cicero’s account
Alon Confino, Paul Betts and Dirk Schumann (eds.) Between Mass Death and Individual Loss: the Place of the Dead in Twentieth-Century Germany (New York: Berghahn Books, 2008)
Reviewed by Ran Zwigenberg
Hanna Papanek, Elly und Alexander: Revolution, Rotes Berlin, Flucht, Exil—eine Sozialistische Familiengeschichte, trans. Joachim Helfer and Hannah C, Wettig (Berlin: Vorwärts Buch, 2006).
Reviewed by Gerard Braunthal
Dolores L. Augustine, Red Prometheus: Engineering and Dictatorship in East Germany, 1945-1950 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007)
Reviewed by Thomas A. Baylis
Tom Dyson, The Politics of German Defense and Security: Policy Leadership and Military Reform in the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007)
Reviewed by Gale A. Mattox
Rolf Steininger, Austria, Germany and the Cold War: From the Anschluss to the State Treaty, 1938–1955 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2008)
Reviewed by Barbara Stelzl-Marx
The article deals with the semantic career of virtus as a political concept in the Middle Ages. It traces the different aspects of meaning assigned to this word in four medieval texts, namely St. Augustine's City of God, the Regula Pastoralis of Gregory the Great, the Via Regia of Smaragdus of St. Mihiel, and the Policraticus of John of Salisbury. Using quantitative methods, I analyze the employment of virtus with a focus on its relevance in the political discourse, and I also address the shift in meaning and argumentative capacity that the term undergoes over time. In the end, virtus can be shown to be a highly flexible yet strongly functional term that plays an important role in the conceptions of medieval societies.
Sabine von Mering, Luke B. Wood, J. Nicholas Ziegler, John Bendix, Marcus Colla, and Alexander Dilger
Dolores L. Augustine, Taking on Technocracy: Nuclear Power in Germany, 1945 to the Present (New York: Berghahn Books, 2018)
Michael Meng and Adam R. Seipp, Modern Germany in Transatlantic Perspective (New York: Berghahn Books, 2017)
Cynthia Miller-Idriss, The Extreme Gone Mainstream: Commercialization and Far Right Youth Culture in Germany (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017)
Constantin Goschler, ed. Compensation in Practice: The Foundation ‘Remembrance, Responsibility and Future’ and the Legacy of Forced Labour during the Third Reich (New York: Berghahn Books, 2017)
Albert Earle Gurganus, Kurt Eisner: A Modern Life (Rochester: Camden House, 2018)
Claudia Sternberg, Kira Gartzou-Katsouyanni, and Kalypso Nicolaïdis, The Greco-German Affair in the Euro Crisis: Mutual Recognition Lost? (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2018)
Sébastien Conard and Tom Lambeens
For Saint Augustine, time was a distentio animi, an extension of the mind. This opinion strongly differs from our modern understanding of time as a measurable parameter of the physical world. Nonetheless, subjectifying approaches still coexist alongside objectifying conceptions of time. They necessarily alternate in our daily lives: though we all keep years, seasons and hours in mind, we live through many moments very personally. Hence, it is indispensable that we pay attention to subjective time experience in the humanities and the arts. In this article, we introduce the concept of duration, as developed by Bergson and Deleuze, into the field of comics studies. We analyse the creation of an experience of time in the work of Chris Ware and Kevin Huizenga, focusing particularly on their deployment of repetition, but we also note how artists such as André Franquin and Willy Vandersteen transgressed classical reading time by invoking a feeling of duration. We go on to consider abstract comics, and the concrete awareness of the actual moment they offer to the reader, which generates direct experience of duration. However, taking Martin Vaughn-James' The Cage as an example, we point out that such a temporal sensation is not dependent on formal abstraction but can occur within the boundaries of pictorial figuration.